Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, "Structural
Adjustment in Africa: Insights from the Experiences of Ghana and Senegal," Report of a
Staff Mission to Great Britain, Ghana, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and France, November
29-December 20, 1988.
Killick argued in 1966 that "a feature of the world cocoa market is that the
world cocoa price is chronically unstable," and that the action of marketing boards in
keeping producer prices low and inhibiting full production might have forestalled
considerable economic trauma. See Tony Killick's article in Walter Birmingham,
E. N. Omoboe, eds. A Study of Contemporary Ghana Vol. 1. (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1966), 378-379.
Crawford Young, Ideology and Development in Africa (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982)
"Clashes and Unrest Grow Fiercer in Ivory Coast," New York Times, March 3, 1990, L3; "President of the Ivory Coast Rejects Democracy Demands," New York Times, March 6, 1990, A13. President Houphet-Boigny has charged that Western countries
engineered the economic crisis to create problems in the political system.
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), Ghana: Country Report No 1, 1990, pp. 8,
13. Cocoa output increased by 58 percent to 300,000 tons in 1988-1989, but the
International cocoa Organization's daily price for cocoa continued to fall from U.S. 71.9
cents/lb in 1988, and 56.3 cents/lb in 1989 New Haven, to 48 cents/lb in 1990.
Since beginning IMF and World Bank adjustment programs in 1983, Ghana has
been declared a "success" and reissued several loans. Since 1987, Ghana has embarked
on PAMSCAD programs funded through a number of donor countries. In anticipation that
divestiture of the state enterprises will proceed, bilateral partners have recently begun
canceling some of Ghana's debt. See EIU, Ghana: Country Report No. 1, 1990.Ibid.
Kwame Nkrumah, Dark Days in Ghana ( London: Panafrica Publications, 1968).
Whether the opposition between peasants and the state or the dominant classes
should be considered as a defensive response on the part of the rural producers has been
the subject of considerable anthropological debate. See Eric Wolf, Peasant Wars of theTwentieth Century