JAEUBER INDEX.SeeIndex of Dissimilarity.
TIPPING POINT. A specific percentage level of blacks in a school or neighborhood that is the threshold at which the black enrollment or population will continue to increase until the school or neighborhood becomes segregated and black. The tipping point of a school is the percentage of black or minority student enrollment at which whites leave (white flight*) or will not come because they fear that the school will decline or become all black. This term was used more in the 1960s and 1970s than thereafter. In Forced Justice David Armor * estimates the tipping point of schools as 50 percent black. Christine Rossell* and Armor also view the degree of flight as a function of where the school is located, the voluntary* versus the mandatory* nature of a school desegregation plan,* and other factors rather than simply as the result of a particular minority percentage of enrollment.
Ottensmann ( 1995) calls for a "Requiem for the Tipping-Point Hypothesis," at least with respect to residential neighborhood change. The tipping-point hypothesis assumes that racially mixed neighborhoods are inherently unstable, for as the tipping point is reached, whites will leave and/or not move into the area and the percentage of blacks will therefore increase. But studies of the 1980 and 1990 censuses indicate that many neighborhoods remained racially mixed or even increased their percentage of whites during this time period. Ottensmann argues that this change may be due to the greater stability in black population in cities, unlike the previous decades when the black population was greatly increasing and needed to locate somewhere. But whatever the cause, the result