Dream and Reality: The Modern Black Struggle for Freedom and Equality

By Jeannine Swift | Go to book overview

any case, to be successful, the Birmingham demonstrations needed to involve masses of blacks. But with that involvement, and the brutality with which "Bull" Connor responded, black anger could not be controlled. It is an often ignored but indubitable truth that the first urban riot was in Birmingham. The atmosphere among blacks within the nation was profoundly altered by the Birmingham demonstration. Blacks everywhere were more militant and more angry. The next summer saw the first wave of the recognized black riots before, during, and after the democratic convention. Soon, black nationalism, black power, and black rioting were widespread. All of these emerged organically from the Civils Rights Movement. No effort to understand them can ignore either the popular upheavals or the efforts of black organizations to guide, and in some cases to create, those upheavals.


NOTES
1.
Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People's Movements ( New York: Pantheon, 1977), xx.
6.
Aldon Morris, The Origins of the Civils Rights Movement ( New York: The Free Press, 1984), 197, 200.
8.
Lewis Killian, "Organization, Rationality and Spontaneity in the Civil Rights Movement," American Sociological Review 49 ( December 1984), 780.
9.
Jack Bloom, Class, Race and the Civil Rights Movement ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 59-73.
11.
Robert Norrell, Reaping the Whirlwind ( New York: Vintage, 1986), 49.
12.
Carl Rowan, South of Freedom ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952), 28-49.
13.
See Morton Rubin, Plantation Country (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1951), 97; Bob Smith, They Closed Their Schools (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965), 169-173; Floyd Hunter , Community Power Structure ( Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1963), 138-139; William Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 320-339; Harry Halloway, The Politics of the Southern Negro ( New York: Random House, 1969), 240-242; Hylan Lewis , Blackways of Kent (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955), 298-299, 186, 257; David Thompson, The Negro Leadership Class (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963), 86, 167-168; Edgar French , "Beginnings of a New Age," in The Angry Black South, ed. Glenford E. Mitchell and William H. Peace III ( New York: Cornith Books, 1962), 32.

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Dream and Reality: The Modern Black Struggle for Freedom and Equality
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • 1: A Tale of Two and One-Half Decades 3
  • Notes 11
  • 2: A Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr. 13
  • 3: Rediscovering Women Leaders of the Civil Rights Movement 19
  • Conclusion 26
  • Notes 26
  • 4: The Civil Rights Movement: Upheaval and Organization 29
  • Conclusion 39
  • Notes 40
  • 5: Blacks and the New South: Civil Rights in the Eighties 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Conclusion 49
  • Notes 50
  • 6: Improving the Plight of Black, Inner-City Youths: Whose Responsibility? 53
  • Notes 65
  • 7: Racial Attitudes of Black and White Adolescents Before and After Desegregation 69
  • Conclusion 73
  • Notes 74
  • 8: The Ills of Integration: A Black Perspective 77
  • Introduction 77
  • Notes 84
  • 9: A Dream Deferred for Quality Education: Civil Rights Legislation and De Facto Segregation in the Cincinnati Schools, 1954-1986 87
  • Notes 91
  • 10: The Housing Conditions of Black Americans: 1960s-1980s 93
  • Conclusion 98
  • Notes 105
  • 11: The Collapse of the Employment Policy Agenda: 1964-1981 107
  • Introduction 107
  • Conclusion 120
  • Notes 121
  • 12: Black Workers at Risk: Jobs for Life or Death 125
  • Conclusion 131
  • Notes 133
  • 13: "Where Do We Go from Here" 137
  • Notes 144
  • Index 147
  • About the Editor and the Contributors 153
  • Hofstra University's Cultural and Intercultural Studies Coordinating Editor, Alexej Ugrinsky 157
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