fluidity of institutions. Political parties based on differing ideologies mushroom
and decay, constitutions are drafted, passed, and ignored; and political structures
are painstakingly set up only to wither away under the combined forces of
domestic and external developments. It is in the nature of political newness to
experiment with new approaches to political governance. Still, the newness of
African political systems has in the past given them the quality of transience.
This era of post-Cold War democratization may usher in a quality of
permanence in relation to the resolution of serious political differences.
In later chapters, we will present some of the outcomes of democratic
clamors in different countries. Our next focus is to examine how historic
structures have served as the foundation for future authoritarian proclivities.
Many developing countries often find themselves in a dilemma brought
about by IMF conditionalities that require the end of many state subsidies, a
requirement that could undermine the stability of the regime and even result in
its overthrow by the military. In particular, many Third World regimes are still
not convinced about the efficacy of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs.
Samuel P. Huntington, "No Exit--The Errors of Endism," The National
Interest, no. 17 (fall 1989), pp. 15-37.
With the recent resurgence in the study of democracy as a political
system, the assertion that historically democracies do not wage war with each
other is being more seriously examined by scholars. For example see Nils Petter Gleditsch
, "Democracy and Peace," Journal of Peace Research 29369-76
( November 1992); and
Jack S. Levy, "The Causes of War," in
Philip E. Tetlock
et al. (eds.), Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, volume 1 ( New York: Oxford
University Press, 1989), pp. 209-333.
As quoted in
Samuel P. Huntington, "The Errors of Endism," in
Richard K. Betts
(ed.), Conflict After the Cold War ( New York: MacMillan Publishing
Co., 1994), p. 34.
Huntington, "No Exit--The Errors of Endism," pp. 15-37.
Pearl T. Robinson, "Democratization: Understanding the Relationship
Between Regime Change and the Culture of Politics," African Studies Review, Volume 37, no. 1 ( April 1994) pp. 39-67.
See for example, G. P. O'Donnell and
P. Schmitter, Transitions from
Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies
( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986); and
A. Lowenthal, Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America ( Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991).
Achille Mbembe, "Democratization and Social Movements in Africa," Africa Demos, 1 (1): 4 (November); and Robinson, "Democratization," p. 39.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Democratization in Africa:The Theory and Dynamics of Political Transitions.
Contributors: Earl Conteh-Morgan - Author.
Publisher: Praeger Publishers.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 30.
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