Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New Millennium

By Joseph Losco; Brian L. Fife | Go to book overview
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Since the late 1980s grade inflation has reached new heights, and students are showing signs of increased competitiveness, heightened concern about college finances, and increased stress. The growing inability of federal and state aid to meet the student's financial need is forcing students to borrow more and forcing colleges to rely more on their own resources (primarily tuition) to help pay for college. Although engagement in the political process has reached new lows, student interest and engagement in volunteer and community service work has reached new highs.

NOTES
1
This chapter has been adapted from Astin ( 1998). The author is indebted to Sarah Parrott, William Korn, Helen Astin, and Linda Sax for their assistance in preparing this chapter.
2
Each year the CIRP surveys some 350,000 full-time students who constitute the entering freshman classes at a nationally representative sample of some 700 twoyear and four-year colleges and universities across the United States. The first seven freshman surveys were conducted at the American Council on Education, with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Ford Foundation. Since 1972, the annual CIRP freshman surveys have been conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, with the continuing sponsorship of the American Council on Education (see Sax, Astin, Korn, and Mahoney, 1996).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Astin, Alexander W. 1998. "The Changing American College Student: Thirty-Year Trends, 1966-1996". The Review of Higher Education, 21:2, 115-135.

-----. 1993. What Matters in College? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

-----. 1982. Minorities in American Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

-----. 1977. Four Critical Years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Astin, Alexander W.; Helen S. Astin; Alan E. Bayer; and Ann S. Bisconti. 1975. The Power of Protest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Astin, Alexander W.; Kenneth C. Green; and William S. Korn. 1987. The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.

Astin, Alexander W.; Sarah A. Parrott; William S. Korn; and Linda J. Sax. 1997. The American Freshman: Thirty Year Trends. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.

Astin, Alexander W.; Lisa Tsui; and Juan Avalos. 1996. Degree Attainment Rates at American Colleges and Universities: Effects on Race, Gender, and Institutional Type. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.

Pascarella, Ernest T., and Patrick T. Terenzini. 1991. How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sax, Linda J.; Alexander W. Astin; William S. Korn; and Kathryn M. Mahoney. 1996. The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1996. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.

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