Peggy Glider, Rod Mullen, Dianne Herbst, Catherine Davis, and Bette Fleishman
A strong link between criminal activity and substance use has been demonstrated (for review see Emshoff, Margolin-Mankoff, and Good, 1990; Nurco, Hanlon, and Kinlock, 1990; Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993). In surveys of incarcerated adults, the percentage reporting use of an illicit substance generally ranges from 73 percent to 85 percent ( National Institute of Justice, 1992; Drugs and Crime Data Center, 1993). This relationship between drugs and crime can be causal (Drugs and Crime Data Center, 1993), crimes committed under the influence ( Innes and Innes, 1988) or crimes committed to maintain a substance habit ( Faupel and Klockars, 1987). A less clearly defined correlational relationship is also present. This relationship is created by the presence of factors that precipitate both criminal activities and substance use (i.e., psychological, social, familial, etc.). The complex interaction between causal and correlational factors must be considered in the development and implementation of treatment programs for incarcerated offenders.
Whereas programs for substance abusers have been established in prisons over a number of years, similar programs in jails were scarce until recently. A brief historical review of both prison and jail programs is presented here to provide the context in which the Pima County Sheriffs Department (PCSD) and Amity developed in 1987 the therapeutic community (TC) for incarcerated adults described in this chapter. This program became a training site for the American Jail Association and has inspired many projects through visits from correctional administrators.
A review of prison programs published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in 1981 found that 215 of 414 state correctional institutions provided substance abuse programs for inmates. The only in-depth information available in 1987 on drug treatment within city and county jail systems was a review by Newman and Price ( 1977).1 Services were classified into four main system categories: internal (treatment while incarcerated provided totally by the jail); interaction (jail interacts with outside agencies to provide treatment while incarcerated and possible post-release follow-up); linkage (jail interacts with one
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Community as Method:Therapeutic Communities for Special Populations and Special Settings. Contributors: George De Leon - Editor. Publisher: Praeger Publishers. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1997. Page number: 97.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.