Mark M. Lowenthal is the senior specialist in U.S. foreign policy at the Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress. From 1985 to 1989, he served in the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, first as director of the Office of Strategic Forces Analysis and then as deputy assistant secretary for functional analysis. Prior to that he was a specialist in national defense at CRS, focusing on intelligence and arms control issues, and also served as head of CRS's Defense/Arms Control and Europe/ Middle East/ Africa sections. Dr. Lowenthal has a Ph.D. in history from Harvard University. His publications include Leadership and Indecision: American War Planning and Policy Process, 1937-1942; a novel, Crispan Magicker, and numerous articles and congressional studies on national security issues. Dr. Lowenthal was the 1988 grand champion on the TV game show Jeopardy! and is coauthor of Secrets of the Jeopardy! Champions.