U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy

By Mark M. Lowenthal | Go to book overview

3
The Age of Smith and Dulles

The Smith Reforms and New Agencies

The surprise invasion of South Korea in June 1950 added force to the criticisms of the CIA then being made in both the executive branch and Congress. In October 1950, General Walter Bedell Smith became DCI. Smith had been chief of staff of the Allied forces in North Africa and the Mediterranean and chief of staff to General Dwight D. Eisenhower when he was supreme commander in Europe. Subsequently, Smith had served as ambassador to the Soviet Union. Unlike Hillenkoetter, Smith was an extremely forceful administrator.

Additional impetus for change also came from William Jackson, who was the new deputy DCI. Under Smith and Jackson, a number of reforms recommended in the Dulles- Correa-Jackson report were enacted. The reforms are usually referred to as the 1950 reorganization, although in fact it went on through 1953.

Smith created the Office of National Estimates (ONE), whose sole task was to produce coordinated national intelligence estimates. Initially, CIA research was to be limited to economic changes in the Soviet bloc and carried out by the new Office of Research and Reports (ORR), while political

-22-

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U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword ix
  • About the Author xiii
  • Summary xv
  • I - The Evolution of U.S. Intelligence 1
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - Antecedents of the Modern U.S. Intelligence Community 6
  • 2 - The National Security Apparatus 13
  • 3 - The Age of Smith and Dulles 22
  • 4 - Intelligence and an Activist Foreign Policy 30
  • 5 - The Great Intelligence Investigation 39
  • 6 - Politicized Intelligence 47
  • 7 - A Restored" Intelligence Community" 66
  • 8 - Intelligence in the Post-Cold War World 87
  • 9 - Observations 100
  • II - The Anatomy of U.S. Intelligence 103
  • 10 - Central Coordination and Management 105
  • 11 - Intelligence Agencies and Components 116
  • 12 - Oversight Bodies 138
  • 13 - Observations 144
  • Notes 146
  • Index 169
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