Politics and Religion in Central and Eastern Europe: Traditions and Transitions

By William H. Swatos Jr | Go to book overview

CONCLUSION

A prediction of the RN subculture hypothesis is that individuals from the subculture will play important roles in the leadership of the nationalist opposition and be highly represented in the rank and file. While this is suggested by the cases I have mentioned, it can be more fully tested by a survey of membership in various national fronts. RN backgrounds were found among nationalist militants in the Basque region and Catalonia (see Pérez-Agote, 1986: 88-98; Zulaika, 1988: 3-15; Johnston, 1991: 54-68). The next step is to gather similar data for nationalisms that mobilized in the final years of the Soviet Union.

Nevertheless, this general survey suggests several tentative points to guide future research:

As in Catalonia, the Basque region, and Poland, the roles of religion and church in several Soviet nationalisms derive from the communist- imposed restrictions on civil life in the context of historical association of church and nation. Where secularization had been advanced prior to subjugation to Soviet rule, the religious aspects of the subculture were diminished. When industrialization and urbanization occurred under coercive socialist development, it appears that the nation-church merger, far from being eradicated by repression and atheistic mobilization, was intensified among some groups. Reasons for this are complex; but at this point they seem to derive from a combination of "orthodox nationalism" preserving the church as a symbol, social-psychological factors deriving from life under authoritarianism, and the social organization of primary ties.

An important factor is the variable treatment the state and party accorded the national churches. It varies according to historical patterns, geopolitical and security factors, regime change and ideology, and factors related to control and mobilization of the local population. In Armenia, extraordinary freedoms were granted to the church by the regime. In Lithuania and the Western Ukraine restrictions were more extreme. There does not, however, seem to be a linear relationship between the freedom given to the national church and its affinity with the nationalist cause.

When the church identifies too closely with the regime, the material and practical advantages it receives may also carry the moral stain of collaboration. Martyrdom aided the severely repressed Uniate church in the Ukraine in its struggle for existence, as it did Lithuanian Catholicism; but complicity with the regime did not seem to damage the place of the Armenian church in the eyes of the population. Whatever symbolic benefits accrue from repression must be balanced by greater organizational and material resources that come with complicity.

-33-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Politics and Religion in Central and Eastern Europe: Traditions and Transitions
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 232

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.