The Social Dynamics of Self-Esteem: Theory to Therapy

By R. A. Steffenhagen; Jeff D. Burns | Go to book overview

4
The Compensatory Mechanism

Chapter 3 developed the self-esteem theory of deviance, postulating that the basic psychosocial mechanism underlying individual deviance is low selfesteem. When people feel inferior they may utilize a special defense mechanism in which they overemphasize one type of behavior in order to cover up for the felt deficiencies in another. Here we will discuss the role of compensation, whereby individuals may actually devote such energy as not only to achieve normalcy in a given area but actually excell where they were once deficient. Compensation, one of Adler's most important concepts, emerged from his work in physiological (organ) inferiority, which he then transferred to the psychological realm. Compensation is used to protect the ego, as a safeguarding mechanism for a fragile self-esteem. In the Freudian paradigm, the source of psychic energy is the id, whereas the Adlerian model does not postulate an innate psychic energy, but rather, suggests that the basic motivating force of all human behavior accrues through the striving for superiority. It is in this striving for superiority that self-esteem emerges. We evaluate ourselves in reference to our goals; that is, we set goals and then evaluate ourselves on the basis of our perception of our level of achievement. We have hypothesized that people who set unrealistic goals, that is, goals that are so high they cannot be achieved, will always maintain a low self-esteem in that they constantly devalue themselves and their efforts because they never achieve their goals. Francis Bacon has suggested that individuals should set their goals somewhat higher than they feel they can attain, and that by so doing they will achieve more than if they set goals in reference to what is perceived as attainable. This particular thought should lead to productivity and ultimately increased happiness, because the individual will be satisfied and elated over the fact that more

-95-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Social Dynamics of Self-Esteem: Theory to Therapy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • 1 - Self-Esteem Psychology 1
  • 2 - Toward a Definition of Self-Esteem 19
  • Notes 51
  • 3 - The Self-Esteem Theory of Deviance 53
  • Notes 92
  • 4 - The Compensatory Mechanism 95
  • 5 - Self-Esteem in Modern Society 119
  • Notes 155
  • 6 - The Nature of Conflict in the Development of Personality 157
  • Notes 181
  • 7 - The Conflict Theory of Personality 183
  • Appendix A - Self-Esteem Inventory 215
  • Appendix B - Mapping Strategies for the Inventory 221
  • Appendix C - Reliability of SEI 223
  • Bibliography 227
  • Index 235
  • About the Authors 244
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 245

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.