Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) and
Rachel McMillan (1859-1917)Convinced that the first six years of life were vital for the prevention of physical
and emotional problems, the McMillan sisters founded the nursery school movement in England.The McMillan sisters helped establish medical and dental care in neighborhood clinics in poor areas, with open-air camp schools to help children learn to live
in a healthy way; The Rachel McMillan Training College in London; and parent
education programs. They proposed the idea of nurture in education to deal with
the child's complete development. The use of sensory and perceptual-motor training, the recognition of the importance of the child's imagination through self-expression experiences, teaching self-care skills, and the care of gardens and pets to
teach responsibility, were educational programs they supported. They developed
the concept of the nurse-teacher and organized the day around a flexible schedule,
emphasing freedom of choice for children in activities and making the outdoors
and freedom of expression an integral part of all daily activities.The McMillan sisters influenced the theory and practice not only of nursery
school education, but of the day care movement, which is its direct descendant.
Their work on behalf of the poor helped to provide all young children with a head
start in life.
|302. || Early Childhood London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1900. Presents theories of
child development and methods used during their years working in Bradford in the North of England. Describes the children's physical and
cognitive development using the work of Edouard Seguine and Friedrich
Froebel to outline a system of education for intellectual development
through play, art, and movement.|
|303. || Education Through the Imagination. London: Dent 1904, 1923 (rev.) Describes how working-class life (now called urban poverty) deprives children of creativity and suggests free movement and play as a way to help
children develop ideas. Uses psychological and medical information to
describe the use of psychology in education.|
|304. || The Camp School. London: Allen & Unwin, 1917. Describes life in the openair camp schools in poverty areas opened by the McMillan sisters and
efforts to help children. Provides the beginning of a theoretical structure
from the practical experience of establishing and running the early camp
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Pioneers of Early Childhood Education:A Bio-Bibliographical Guide.
Contributors: Barbara Ruth Peltzman - Author.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1998.
Page number: 77.
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