Communications and Cultural Analysis: A Religious View

By Michael Warren | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
I have commented on this problem in several places in Michael Warren, Youth, Gospel, Liberation ( New York: Harper & Row, 1987), esp. pp. 54-63.
2.
The example I have used here might seem to belie my own argument. In the course of the play, when the boy, Alan, repeats the jingles, the viewer wonders if there is unconscious, creative meaning to his choice of these particular jingles. However, they are never presented as anything more than inane babble, rote utterances symbolizing lack of touch with reality. See Peter Shaffer, Equus ( New York: Avon, 1974).
3.
Here I am taking the liberty of adopting "iconic images" to mean representational images. The matter of how to name visuals is quite complex, thanks to the classic (and complex) taxonomy of phenomena worked out by the logician/mathematician Charles Sanders Peirce ( 1839-1914). Some commentators on religious art use "icon" in a quite specific way. Study convinces me that my usage here is acceptable. For work on various problems in classifying images, see Maria Lucia Santaella Braga, "For a Classification of Visual Signs," Semiotica 70, no. 1/2 ( 1988): 59-78; Richard Moran, "Seeing and Believing: Metaphor, Image, and Force," Critical Inquiry 16 (Autumn 1989): 87-112; Tadeusz Kowzan, "Iconisme ou Mimetisme?" Semiotica 71, no. 3/4 ( 1988): 213-26; M. R. Mayenowa, "An Analysis of Some Visual Signs: Suggestions for Analysis," in Jan van der Eng and Majmir Grygaer, eds., The Structure of Texts and the Semiotics of Culture ( The Hague: Mouton, 1973), pp. 197-208. See also Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss, eds., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vols. 1 and 2 ( Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965), vol. 2, par. 92, pp. 51-52; vol. 2, par. 230, pp. 143-44; vol. 2, pars. 247-49, pp. 143-44.
4.
An important analysis of the use of images in advertising is Raymond Williams , "Advertising: the Magic System," in his Problems in Materialism and Culture ( London and New York: Verso, 1980), pp. 170-95.
5.
See Neil Postman, "Engaging Students in the Great Conversation," Phi Delta Kappan, January 1983, 311.
6.
Mark C. Miller deals with some of these stylistic shifts in "Hollywood: The Ad," The Atlantic Monthly, April 1990, 41-68.
7.
Some narratives--for example, William Faulkner The Sound and the Fury--while not having an immediately accessible coherence and plot sequence, gradually and finally prove to have exceptional coherence.
8.
Postman, "Engaging Students," p. 314.
9.
Helena Sheehan, Irish Television Drama: A Society and Its Stories ( Dublin: Radio Telefis Eireann, 1987), p. 35. Two feminist studies of women's reactions to varied media bring out the contradictions in the actual effects of signifying forms: Lorraine Gamman and Margaret Marshment, eds., The Female Gaze ( Seattle: Real Comet, 1989) and Lisa A. Lewis, Gender Politics and MTV ( Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989). See Elayne Rapping review of

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