Reginald Horsman, "Recent Trends and New Directions in Native American
Jerome O. Steffen, ed., The American West: New Perspectives, New Dimensions ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979); Herbert T. Hoover, "American
Indians from Prehistoric Times to the Civil War", in
Michael P. Malone, ed., Historians
and the American West ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983); Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West 1846-1890 ( Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press, 1984).
Roy Harvey Pearce, The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea
of Civilization ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1953); Leslie A. Fiedler, The
Return of the Vanishing American ( New York: Stein and Day, 1968), p. 75. See also Brian Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy ( Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1982); Francis Jennings, "Virgin Land and
Savage People", American Quarterly 23 ( October 1971): 519-41; James Axtell, "The
Scholastic Theory of the Wilderness", William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser. 29 ( July 1972): 355-66; Rayna Green, "The Pocohontas Perplex: The Image of Indian Women
in American Culture", Massachusetts Review 16 (Winter 1975): 698-714.
Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American
Frontier, 1600-1860 ( Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973); Michael Paul Rogin
, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American
Indian ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975); Rogin, "Indian Extinction, American Regeneration", Journal of Ethnic Studies 2 (Spring 1974): 93-104. See also Robert Shulman, "Parkman's Indians and American Violence", Massachusetts Review 12 (Spring 1971): 221-39; Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-
Building ( New York: New American Library, 1980). For more balanced views, see Reginald Horsman, "Scientific Racism and the American Indian in the Mid-Nineteenth
Century", American Quarterly 27 ( May 1975): 152-68, and Robert E. Bieder, "Scientific
Attitudes Toward Indian Mixed-Bloods in Early Nineteenth Century America", Journal
of Ethnic Studies 8 (Summer 1980): 17-30.
Robert F. Berkhofer Jr., The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian
from Columbus to the Present ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978).
Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the
American Indian (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973); Sheehan, "Paradise and the Noble Savage in Jeffersonian Thought", William and Mary Quarterly,
3d Ser. 26 ( July 1969): 327-59; Lewis O. Saum, The Fur Trader and the Indian ( Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965). For discussions of other groups, see Linda K.Kerber