mands that scholars put Indians at the center of Indian history echoed across
scholarly meetings. Although difficult, that task is by no means impossible, as
recent studies have shown, and continuing emphasis needs to be placed on that
approach. Some of the newest and most stimulating work combines ecological
and ethnological data with a truly impressive clarification of Indian circumstances. All of these approaches provide opportunity for historians to develop theses
for an ever clearer understanding of the past. One or some combination of them
may provide an overall method or pattern that will help to explain the varied,
complex, and even contradictory story of Indians in the United States.
Reginald Horsman, "Recent Trends and New Directions in Native American
Jerome O. Steffen, ed., The American West: New Perspectives, New Dimensions ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979); Herbert T. Hoover, "American
Indians from Prehistoric Times to the Civil War", in
Michael P. Malone, ed., Historians
and the American West ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983); Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West 1846-1890 ( Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press, 1984).
Roy Harvey Pearce, The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea
of Civilization ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1953); Leslie A. Fiedler, The
Return of the Vanishing American ( New York: Stein and Day, 1968), p. 75. See also Brian Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy ( Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1982); Francis Jennings, "Virgin Land and
Savage People", American Quarterly 23 ( October 1971): 519-41; James Axtell, "The
Scholastic Theory of the Wilderness", William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser. 29 ( July 1972): 355-66; Rayna Green, "The Pocohontas Perplex: The Image of Indian Women
in American Culture", Massachusetts Review 16 (Winter 1975): 698-714.
Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American
Frontier, 1600-1860 ( Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973); Michael Paul Rogin
, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American
Indian ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975); Rogin, "Indian Extinction, American Regeneration", Journal of Ethnic Studies 2 (Spring 1974): 93-104. See also Robert Shulman, "Parkman's Indians and American Violence", Massachusetts Review 12 (Spring 1971): 221-39; Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-
Building ( New York: New American Library, 1980). For more balanced views, see Reginald Horsman, "Scientific Racism and the American Indian in the Mid-Nineteenth
Century", American Quarterly 27 ( May 1975): 152-68, and Robert E. Bieder, "Scientific
Attitudes Toward Indian Mixed-Bloods in Early Nineteenth Century America", Journal
of Ethnic Studies 8 (Summer 1980): 17-30.
Robert F. Berkhofer Jr., The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian
from Columbus to the Present ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978).
Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the
American Indian (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973); Sheehan, "Paradise and the Noble Savage in Jeffersonian Thought", William and Mary Quarterly,
3d Ser. 26 ( July 1969): 327-59; Lewis O. Saum, The Fur Trader and the Indian ( Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965). For discussions of other groups, see Linda K.Kerber
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: American Frontier and Western Issues:A Historiographical Review.
Contributors: Roger L. Nichols - Editor.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 1986.
Page number: 169.
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