Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations

By Joseph D. Novak | Go to book overview

Appendix I: How To Build a Concept Map
1.Identify a focus question that addresses the problem, issues, or knowledge domain you wish to map. Guided by this question, identify 10 to 20 concepts that are pertinent to the question and list these. Some people find it helpful to write the concept labels on separate cards or Post-itsTM so that they can be moved around. If you work with computer software for mapping, produce a list of concepts on your computer. Concept labels should be a single word, or at most two or three words.
2.Rank order the concepts by placing the broadest and most inclusive idea at the top of the map. It is sometimes difficult to identify the broadest, most inclusive concept. It is helpful to reflect on your focus question to help decide the ranking of the concepts. Sometimes this process leads to modification of the focus question or writing a new focus question.
3.Work down the list and add more concepts as needed.
4.Begin to build your map by placing the most inclusive, most general concept(s) at the top. Usually there will be only one, two, or three most general concepts at the top of the map.
5.Next select the two, three, or four subconcepts to place under each general concept. Avoid placing more than three or four concepts under any other concept. If there seem to be six or eight concepts that belong under a major concept or subconcept, it is usually possible to identify some appropriate concept of intermediate inclusiveness, thus creating another level of hierarchy in your map.
6.Connect the concepts by lines. Label the lines with one or a few linking words. The linking words should define the relationship between the two concepts so that it reads as a valid statement or proposition. The connection creates meaning. When you hierarchically link together a large number of related ideas, you can see the structure of meaning for a given subject domain.
7.Rework the structure of your map, which may include adding, subtracting, or changing superordinate concepts. You may need to do this reworking several times, and in fact this process can go on indefinitely as you gain new knowledge or new insights. This is where Post-itsTM are helpful, or better still, computer software for creating maps.

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Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures ix
  • List of Tables xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgments xviii
  • 1 - An Overview of the Book 1
  • 2 - The Need for a Theory of Education 8
  • 3 - Meaningful Learning for Empowerment 19
  • 4 - The Construction of New Meanings 35
  • 5 - Ausubel's* Assimilation Learning Theory 49
  • 6 - The Nature of Knowledge and How Humans Create Knowledge 79
  • 7 - The Effective Teacher/Manager 112
  • 8 - The Context for Education/ Management 153
  • 9 - Evaluation and Rewards 180
  • 10 - Improving Education in Schools and Corporations 202
  • Appendix I: How To Build a Concept Map 227
  • Appendix II: Procedures for Teaching VEE Diagramming 229
  • References 231
  • Author Index 240
  • Subject Index 244
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