|1.Select a laboratory or field event (or object) that is relatively simple to observe and for which one or more focus questions can be readily identified. Alternatively, a research paper with similar features can be used after all students (and the teacher) have read it carefully.|
|2.Begin with a discussion of the event or objects being observed. Be sure that what is identified is the event(s) for which records are made. Surprisingly, this is sometimes difficult.|
|3.Identify and write out the best statement of the focus question(s). Again, be sure that the focus question(s) relate to the events or objects studied and the records to be made.|
|4.Discuss how the questions serve to focus our attention on the specific features of the events or objects and require that certain kinds of records be obtained if the questions are to be answered. Illustrate how a different question about the same events or objects would require different records to be made (or a different degree of precision).|
|5.Discuss the source of our questions, or our choice of objects or events to be observed. Help students to see that, in general, our relevant concepts, principles, or theories guide us in choosing what to observe and what questions to ask.|
|6.Discuss the validity and reliability of the records. Are they facts (i.e., valid, reliable records)? Are there concepts, principles, and theories that relate to our record-making devices that assure their validity and reliability? Are there better ways to gather more valid records?|
|7.Discuss how we can transform our records to answer our questions. Are certain graphs, tables, or statistics useful transformations?|
|8.Discuss the construction of knowledge claims. Help students to see that different questions could lead to gathering different records and performing different record transformations. The result may be a whole new set of knowledge claims about the source events or objects.|
|9.Discuss value claims. These are value statements such as X is better than Y, or X is good, or we should seek to achieve X. Note that value claims should|
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge:Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations. Contributors: Joseph D. Novak - Author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication year: 1998. Page number: 229.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.