Social Marketing: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives

By Marvin E. Goldberg; Martin Fishbein et al. | Go to book overview

Chapter 19
Reducing the Level of Violence in Hockey

Marvin E. Goldberg
Pennsylvania State University

Ozlem Sandikci
Pennsylvania State University

David Litvack
University of Ottawa


ABSTRACT

This chapter aims to provide a basic understanding of the sources and causes of violence in hockey and offers possible ways to reduce it. First, the relation between violence in society and violence in sports is examined and its implications for the case of hockey are discussed. Various determinants of hockey violence are reviewed. The remaining section focuses on the question of how the level of violence in hockey can be reduced and offers a three-prong strategy that draws mainly from social learning theory ( Bandura, 1973, 1986) and dyadic processes leading to behavior change. Examples are drawn from an ongoing "Fair Play" campaign in Canada that is intended to reduce violence in hockey and in sports in general. Although player and spectator violence are interrelated components of violence in sports, this chapter focuses on player violence.

There is not much question that violence has become a central concern in late 20th-century America. Interestingly, however, violence in sports traditionally has been invested with an aura of legitimacy and has tended to be viewed as something other than "real" violence. Social norms and laws specifying what constitutes acceptable conduct in society are temporarily suspended under the umbrella of sport ( Russell, 1993; Smith, 1975, 1983). This seems to be true even for "extreme fighting"--a combination of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts--which, with very few rules to control the use of excessive violence, often devolves into "free-for-all bloody brawls" ( Barry, 1995, p. B3). Responsibility for enforcing rules and sanctions rests with the

-335-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Social Marketing: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 457

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.