Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination

By Stuart Oskamp | Go to book overview

other. When the controversy and problem-solving negotiation procedures are used skillfully, such conflicts tend to result in higher-level reasoning, the utilization of diverse perspectives, creative insights, synthesis of different positions, high-quality and novel solutions, and trusting, supportive, and caring relationships. To maintain the cooperative community, therefore, constructive conflict resolution procedures must be taught to all school members.

To guide and direct the cooperation and constructive conflict resolution, civic values must be inculcated in all school members. Civic values that highlight the need to work together toward the common good, maximize joint (not individual) benefits, and seek the "truth" through the clash of adverse positions, are the glue that holds the school together; and they define how members should act toward each other.

While each of the three Cs may be discussed and implemented separately, together they represent a gestalt in which each enhances and promotes the others. Together the three Cs may create schools where prejudices and discrimination are reduced, and children and youth learn and develop in positive and healthy ways.


NOTES
1
A meta-analysis of studies that compared the relative impact of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic experiences, using Cohen's( 1992)d as the measure of effect size, showed that cooperation promotes much better perspective-taking than competition or individualistic activities (d = .61 and .44, respectively -- Johnson & Johnson, 1989).
2
Meta-analytic findings showed that cooperation promotes higher self-esteem than competition (d = .58) and than individualistic experiences (d = .44) ( Johnson & Johnson, 1989).
3
Meta-analysis showed that cooperation produces much greater productivity than competition (d = .67) and than individualistic activity (d = .64) ( Johnson & Johnson, 1989).

REFERENCES

Allport G. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Brewer M., & Miller N. ( 1984). Beyond the contact hypothesis: Theoretical perspectives on desegregation. In N. Miller & M. Brewer (Eds.), Groups in contact: The psychology of desegregation (pp. 281-302). New York: Academic Press.

Cohen J. ( 1992). "A power primer". Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.

Cooper L., Johnson, D. W., Johnson R., & Wilderson F. ( 1980). "The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic experiences on interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous peers". Journal of Social Psychology, 111, 243-252.

Deutsch M. ( 1962). "Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes". In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 275-319). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Deutsch M. ( 1973). "The resolution of conflict". New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

-266-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 353

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.