Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults

By Norman E. Spear; Linda P. Spear et al. | Go to book overview

21
The Enigma of Reinforcement

Karl H. Pribram Stanford University Radford University, Virginia

All of my days in the laboratory have been rewarding. I cannot imagine a more fascinating or more interesting life than struggling to find out how the brain works. (p. viii)

Theories must be evaluated on the basis of whether they make sense of the facts to be explained. (p. vii )

-- Isaacson ( 1974)

For the better part of this century, psychology has prided itself on becoming scientific. Impetus came from technical behaviorism: The scientific study of behavior allowed precise descriptions to be made of functional relationships between an organism and its environment in terms of the behavior generated by that relationship. Descriptive functionalism reached its zenith in learning theory, and especially in operant behaviorism, the operational descriptions of the behavior of organisms.

I believe the time is ripe for a new departure and suggest that, under the leadership of neuropsychology, we embark toward what might best be called dynamic structuralism. Descriptive functionalism set the stage, leaving us with a series of problems that cannot be resolved at the purely descriptive level. These problems demand new approaches that are bound to redefine the very terms that made up the cores of theory in the functionalist approach. Reinforcement is one such term.

At a UNESCO-sponsored meeting on the topic of Brain and Human Behavior held in Paris, B. F. Skinner presented one of the best talks I had ever heard him give. He declared that after much thought, he had come

-381-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 472

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.