Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults

By Norman E. Spear; Linda P. Spear et al. | Go to book overview
ability that an associated behavior will recur. Reinforcers and deterrents are defined as environmental consequences of behavior.As Skinner pointed out, however, there is a gap between the reinforcing/deterrent event and the subsequent behavior it influences. Skinner noted that only brain science can fill this gap.In this chapter, I have indicated that brain science alone cannot do the job of filling the gap. Both the level of brain science and that of behavioral science must be engaged. Once this is realized, brain systems can be identified that make reinforced behavior possible. Evidence was presented that the amygdala and its related systems serve to mark ongoing experience into episodes; that the hippocampus serves to mark units within episodes as events; and that the far frontal cortex serves to mark the ordering of events within an episode.Thus events (from the Latin ex-venire, i.e., out-come) are constructions that result from behavior. The brain systems that contribute to the construction "value" the events. The term value is used here the way weights are described among connections in neural network (parallel distributed processing, PDP) programs. Values are changed as the reinforcing process proceeds during learning.Preliminary forays into developing a neurally based theory of reinforcement/deterrent are ventured. This theory takes into account both the biological and behavioral contributions to the process.
APPENDIX

The Anatomy of Memory
Proceedings of the First Conference on Learning, Remembering, and Forgetting September 29-October 2, 1963, Princeton, NJ Chair: Karl H. Pribram Editor: Daniel P. KimblePapers Presented:
Possible Ways in Which Synaptic Mechanisms Participate in Learning, Remembering, and Forgetting John C. Eccles/ Discussion: Roger W. Sperry
Morphological Alterations of the Cerebral Cortex and Their Possible Role in the Loss and Acquisition of Information Lawrence Kruger
Activation of Nuclear RNA in Neurons and Glia in Learning Holgar Hyden

-397-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 472

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.