while sailing, and arm movements can be trained during flamenco dancing.
Quality of life is not always a question of getting a job or being able to study again, but also having sport and/or leisure activities. Former students are offered continued use of the facilities of the fitness center. Typically 10% of each group continues.
Most brain-injury patients receive physical therapy treatment together with occupational therapy as inpatients. A majority of the brain-injury patients also continue as outpatients in a hospital setting or private clinic. The treatment principles mostly follow the PNF theories of Bobath ( 1954).
One year after a stroke or cranial trauma, the Bobath concept is insufficient to meet the patients' special cognitive, social, and emotional problems, and to integrate them in the physical rehabilitation. Spasticity may be a great physical problem, but it is also a psychological one.
During the last 7 years, the physical therapeutic treatment at the Center for Rehabilitation of Brain Injury has changed from being traditionally Bobath oriented to being more functional and pedagogically cognitive. It has been inspired by Luria, whose ideas constitute the basis of the retraining principles used by all the members of the interdisciplinary team.
The physical therapists do not "treat" but offer physical training, consultation, and education. The physical training takes place in normal surroundings, and has demonstrated a greater degree of transfer effect than has been possible to achieve in an institutional environment.
In conclusion, in the future physical therapists will need to integrate the cognitive, psychological, and social deficits into the physical rehabilitation, and not simply focus on arms and legs rehabilitation. This approach will avoid the frustration of failing to make spasticity permanently disappear. Additionally, a physical therapist has more challenge and satisfaction when a greater repertoire is offered rather than a single system.
Åstrand P.-O., & Rodahl K. ( 1970). Textbook of physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Andrews K., Brocklehurst J. C., Richards B., & Laycock P. J. ( 1981). "The rate of recovery from stroke -- and its measurement". International Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3, 155-161.