Making and Unmaking the Prospects for Rhetoric: Selected Papers from the 1996 Rhetoric Society of America Conference

By Theresa Enos; Richard McNabb et al. | Go to book overview

Yet the triangle is no more than a snapshot. It arrests a moment in an ongoing process. To stay with the geometrical metaphor, the triangle marks points on the inner surface of a sphere that is constantly rolling along. Gregory Clark calls a rhetorical statement a "claim to power" -- only a claim. And he explains: "What is claimed is transformed into something real only when it is actualized in the authorizing response of the people it addresses" -- the listeners, who need to become speakers to respond, turning the speaker into a listener waiting for a validating response (59).

With this tumble of the communication sphere, we should now examine what hecklers also are sabotaging: the power of listening.


Notes
1
In a call-and-response model, the demarcation between response and heckling may be more difficult to draw.
2
Originally, the number of listeners was limited by the acoustics of the locale and the volume of the speaker's voice. I am leaving aside the role of modern technology in extending the reach of the human voice.
3
Kinneavy names the sources for the drawing on page 58. (I won't speculate on the meaning of the fact that the two sides of the drawing on page 19 vary by a few millimeters; they are of equal length in the rest of the book.)
4
I am excluding heckling in public gatherings that do not primarily involve public speaking, such as sports events or musical performances (opera, concerts).
5
Carolyn Miller argues that the exigence is not simply discovered but must be defined and negotiated and that there may be more than one exigence ("Genre as Social Action" 30). Karlyn Kohrs Campbell also points out that there may be conflicting exigences for women speakers ( "The Rhetoric of Women's Liberation: An Oxymoron"85).
6
Bourdieu is talking about "ritual discourse" uttered, for example, by representatives of the clergy or of academia, not about speakers who lack institutional backing (113). But his discussion provides an understanding for what it is that makes it difficult for subordinate groups to gain a public voice.
7
Research measuring the energy expended in speaking and listening could be done to verify this hypothesis. The amounts may not only vary but overlap. For example, in a conversation a listener not only listens but also plans what to say at the next turn, That kind of listening is probably more active than listening to a public speech where the hearer has no chance of respondimg,
8
Graddol and Swann provide an overview of linguistic research on turn-taking in conversation, especially between two speakers. One feature studied is interruptions. Although interruptions may be due to lack of competence or dialectal differences in judging the moment for turn-taking, often they are used by the speaker with higher status to regain the floor. (Adults tend to interrupt children; men, women; higher-status males, other males [77, 79].) Another feature is length of turn. See Crawford on man's taking "more than a 'fair share' of talk time" (42).

Works Cited

Bitzer Lloyd. "The Rhetorical Situation". Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 ( 1968): 1-14.

Bourdieu Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power. Ed. and Intro. John B. Thompson. Trans. Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991.

Burke Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. 1945. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.

Campbell Karlyn Kohrs. Man Cannot Speak for Her: A Critical Study of Early Feminist Rhetoric. Vol. 1. New York: Greenwood, 1989. 2 vols.

-----. "The Rhetoric of Women's Liberation: An Oxymoron". Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 ( 1973): 74-86.

Clark Gregory. Dialogue, Dialectic, and Conversation: A Social Perspective on the Function of Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990.

-171-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Making and Unmaking the Prospects for Rhetoric: Selected Papers from the 1996 Rhetoric Society of America Conference
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 215

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.