Phlebotomy wits probably the major cause of George Washington's death, on December 14, 1799. He was bled three times in less than twenty-four hours (for what
retrospective diagnosis suggests was a strep throat). See
Paster ( 1993) for an interesting review of the lore, beliefs, and practices of phlebotomy in early modern England.
William Morton, an American dentist, is usually credited with demonstrating the
value of ether as a general anesthetic. Crawford Long, a U.S. surgeon, had used ether in
his practice in 1942 but did not make his findings public until 1849. Humphry Davy
had suggested the use of nitrous oxide as early as 1800, but its value was not demonstrated until 1844 by Horace Wells, an American dentist.
Henry VIII Act of Supremacy ( 1534) made the king the head of the church in England; an independent Church of England was established in 1558 under Elizabeth I.
Latin continued to be the universal language of science until well into the seventeenth century, such that matters of a scientific nature were available only to the specially educated. As noted in Chapter 2, the works of Copernicus, Galileo, Vesalius, and Newton, for example, were all published originally in Latin.
W. Guthrie ( 1951), this book included an extended description of hand
gestures considered appropriate to various themes of a speech.
John Walker Elements of Elocution was the most popular English textbook used
in American colleges in the early part of the nineteenth century.
The term "lyceum" was adopted from Aristotle's school, named for the park outside of Athens where it was located.
The program content was gradually broadened to include musicians, concerts, and
other popular entertainment. However, drama was frowned upon until 1911, when
some of Shakespeare's plays were produced. The peak year of the Chautauquas was 1924, when programs were presented in 10,000 communities, attended by over 40 million persons ( Harrison 1958).
It is notable that the National Science Foundation still supports, through the
Chautauqua foundation, "Chautauqua-type Short Courses," an annual series of forums
throughout the United States in which scholars in various sciences can directly apprise
college teachers of recent developments in their fields.
For an excellent exposition of these and related topics see Eiseley ( 1958).
In the next century other teachers of the deaf would also help stutterers. Outstanding among them were the Bells; see later in this chapter.