Stuttering: A Short History of a Curious Disorder

By Marcel E. Wingate | Go to book overview

voicing in the identical circumstance ( Lee et al. 1973). A fourth item of special interest is the routine utilized in the early nineteenth century by Good ( 1827) and by McCormac ( 1828) of having the patient begin treatment by saying only letters, then simple words, then words in sequence. This same technique has been offered late in the twentieth century, at which time it was presented as a newly devised procedure in a therapy program supposedly derived from, and expressing the principles of, the "operant learning" paradigm ( Ryan and Van Kirk 1971; D. M. Mowrer 1975, 1980; Costello Ingham 1993).

Nineteenth and twentieth-century correspondences will be considered again at the end of Chapter 9.


NOTES
1.
Phlebotomy wits probably the major cause of George Washington's death, on December 14, 1799. He was bled three times in less than twenty-four hours (for what retrospective diagnosis suggests was a strep throat). See Paster ( 1993) for an interesting review of the lore, beliefs, and practices of phlebotomy in early modern England.
2.
William Morton, an American dentist, is usually credited with demonstrating the value of ether as a general anesthetic. Crawford Long, a U.S. surgeon, had used ether in his practice in 1942 but did not make his findings public until 1849. Humphry Davy had suggested the use of nitrous oxide as early as 1800, but its value was not demonstrated until 1844 by Horace Wells, an American dentist.
3.
Henry VIII Act of Supremacy ( 1534) made the king the head of the church in England; an independent Church of England was established in 1558 under Elizabeth I.
4.
Latin continued to be the universal language of science until well into the seventeenth century, such that matters of a scientific nature were available only to the specially educated. As noted in Chapter 2, the works of Copernicus, Galileo, Vesalius, and Newton, for example, were all published originally in Latin.
5.
Noted in W. Guthrie ( 1951), this book included an extended description of hand gestures considered appropriate to various themes of a speech.
6.
John Walker Elements of Elocution was the most popular English textbook used in American colleges in the early part of the nineteenth century.
7.
The term "lyceum" was adopted from Aristotle's school, named for the park outside of Athens where it was located.
8.
The program content was gradually broadened to include musicians, concerts, and other popular entertainment. However, drama was frowned upon until 1911, when some of Shakespeare's plays were produced. The peak year of the Chautauquas was 1924, when programs were presented in 10,000 communities, attended by over 40 million persons ( Harrison 1958).
9.
It is notable that the National Science Foundation still supports, through the Chautauqua foundation, "Chautauqua-type Short Courses," an annual series of forums throughout the United States in which scholars in various sciences can directly apprise college teachers of recent developments in their fields.
10.
For an excellent exposition of these and related topics see Eiseley ( 1958).
11.
In the next century other teachers of the deaf would also help stutterers. Outstanding among them were the Bells; see later in this chapter.

-54-

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Stuttering: A Short History of a Curious Disorder
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures and Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 4
  • Part I - Long Ago and Far Away 7
  • Chapter 2 - Eoanthropus to Anno Domini 7
  • Notes 16
  • Chapter 3 - Anno Domini to 1700 27
  • Part II - The Significant Interim 29
  • Chapter 4 - 1700-1900 29
  • Notes 54
  • Chapter 5 - Early Twentieth Century 80
  • Part III - Modern Times 85
  • Chapter 6 - A Decade of Formative Transition 85
  • Notes 106
  • Chapter 7 - A View with Room 109
  • Notes 133
  • Part IV - Still Wandering 137
  • Chapter 8 - The Legacy 137
  • Notes 159
  • Chapter 9 - Other Dimensions 194
  • Part V - Denouement 199
  • Chapter 10 - Synopsis and Sequelae 199
  • Notes 214
  • Glossary 217
  • References 225
  • Further Reading 241
  • Name Index 243
  • Subject Index 247
  • About the Author 251
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