Black and White in Southern Zambia: The Tonga Plateau Economy and British Imperialism, 1890-1939

By Kenneth P. Vickery | Go to book overview

that most Tonga peasant households continue to produce the bulk of their subsistence (at least in decent seasons), and this provides a measure of independence from the wider economy. Yet even producing this subsistence is a far more costly process than it was in the 1930s, and will remain so even if inflation is brought under control. Certain kinds of agricultural inputs--fertilizer is the most obvious example--are now virtual necessities, even for those at the bottom of the socio-economic scale. Thus the income from participation in markets is vital even without consideration of purchased consumer goods. The exact length of the "arm's length" relationship between peasants and the wider economy has shortened considerably. There is no question that they are exploited in their participation by urban areas, classes, and the state, and underserved by the latter; yet their dependence on these goes forward. The larger the scale of operations, the greater the dependence. If in Hyden's scheme the state needs the peasants, but the peasants don't need the state, this cannot be said on the Plateau; Momba finds that "rich peasants have become more, not less, dependent on the state for their well-being." 36 For smaller producers, there are still dependence and vulnerability; many would fit Elliott's description of the farmer "who has the resources, motivation and, to a degree at least, the managerial skill to grow a range of 'modern' crops but who finds that his attempts to do so are continuously frustrated by poor prices, inadequate delivery systems, corrupt distribution of credit, ineffective marketing, [and] erroneous extension advice." 37 Yet to exercise the "exit option" still would mean a substantial loss in income, drastic in the case of the large peasant.

Such a situation, then, has advantages and disadvantages compared to the "uncaptured" alternative, and many advantages, certainly, compared to being locked in to migrant labor. And it can be argued that this form of "development" is good for Zambia as a whole; the contribution to the national goal of food self-sufficiency is clear, a goal that is in reach and not to be taken lightly, obviously, in Africa today. To judge from the histories of other captured peasantries, the experience of Tonga individuals and families is likely to vary greatly. For some the future will be rewarding, or at least enriching. For others transitions will be painful. History suggests, however, that it would be a mistake to underestimate the capacity of Plateau Tonga communities to shape their own future.


NOTES
1.
T. O. Ranger, "Growing from the Roots: Reflections on Peasant Research in Central and Southern Africa," Journal of Southern African Studies 5, 1 ( 1978): 128.
2.
See J. S. Hogendorn, "Economic Initiative and African Cash Farming: Pre-Colonial Origins and Early Colonial Developments," in L. H. Gann and P. Duignan, Colonialism in Africa 1870-1960, vol. 4: The Economics of Colonialism ( Cambridge, Eng., 1975), pp. 283-328.
3.
M. Miracle, "Plateau Tonga Entrepeneurs in Historical Inter- regional Trade," Rhodes-Livingstone Journal 26 ( 1959): 34-50.
4.
J. Iliffe, The Emergence of African Capitalism ( Minneapolis,

-228-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Black and White in Southern Zambia: The Tonga Plateau Economy and British Imperialism, 1890-1939
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • RECENT TITLES IN CONTRIBUTIONS IN COMPARATIVE COLONIAL STUDIES ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Maps vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Notes and Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - The Plateau in the Late Nineteenth Century 13
  • Notes 29
  • 2 - The Imperial Economy in South Central Africa, 1890-1925: An Overview 35
  • Conclusion 48
  • Notes 49
  • 3 - Contact and Conquest, 1890-1904 53
  • Notes 67
  • 4 - A Colonial Situation, 1904-1918 71
  • Conclusion 112
  • Notes 113
  • 5 - Boom and Bust, 1918-1925 121
  • Notes 140
  • 6 - Transformation of the Indigenous Economy: The Emergence of a Peasantry 145
  • Notes 177
  • 7 - Peasants, Settlers, and State in the Copperbelt Era, 1925-1939 185
  • Conclusion 210
  • Conclusion 211
  • 8 - Epilogue and Conclusion 215
  • Notes 228
  • Bibliography 231
  • Index 245
  • About the Author 249
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 252

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.