Langston Hughes: Folk Dramatist in the Protest Tradition, 1921-1943

By Joseph McLaren | Go to book overview

and furthers Hughes's presentation of central women characters-- Cora in Mulatto, the mother in Soul Gone Home, and Aunt Billie in When the Jack Hollers. Both Cora and Harper are foregrounded, their past relationships with men explored in extended monologues. Front Porch, like Mulatto, treats "space" as symbolic and protected, a motif that adds to Hughes's presentation of setting and social themes.


NOTES
1.
Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps, Popo and Fifina: Children of Haiti, Index and Synopsis, ts., cat. #2954-2955, LHP-YUBL. The story was also dramatized by Brunetta Mouzon for Production in the Public Schools of Chicago." Hughes's signature appears on the cover of this "Dramatization" as well as Mouzon's authorship. The first performance, for which Hughes provided a number of song lyrics, was presented on June 12, 1943. Mouzon, now Brunetta Bernstein, thought Hughes to have been "displeased with the music" she added to the play; she "was not given very special treatment" by Hughes. Lorraine Hansberry and Frances Taylor were in the cast. Brunetta Bernstein, telephone interview, 15 May 1997.
2.
Errol Hill, ed., Black Heroes: Seven Plays ( New York: Applause, 1989) 1-5; C. L.R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution, 2nd ed. ( 1963; New York: Vintage, 1989) 256.
3.
Thomas O. Ott, The Haitian Revolution, 1789- 1804 ( Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1973) 133; " Christophe Henry," New Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995 ed.; James357.
4.
Langston Hughes, Emperor of Haiti, Black Heroes: Seven Plays, ed. Errol Hill ( New York: Applause, 1989) 7, 9. A draft of the play, dated November 4, 1960, is part of the 1963 typescript version inscribed "Especially for the James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection at Yale . . . Sept. 1963."
5.
Emperor10-11. Martel's line in which he remembers Africa can be found in Hughes poem Afro-American Fragment."
6.
Emperor14-15.
7.
Emperor22-23. See Alfred Métraux, Voodoo in Haiti, trans. Hugo Charteris ( New York: Schocken, 1972) ch. 1; Maya Deren, Divine Horsemen: Voodoo Gods of Haiti ( New York: Chelsea House, 1970) 55-61. James86-87, 96. Boukman was killed in battle, and his head was placed on a spike by the Colonial Assembly to deter insurrection.
8.
Emperor22-25.
9.
Emperor 25, 28-30; Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea ( Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1987) 193.
10.
Emperor20-21, 25.
11.
Emperor37.
12.
Emperor 39, 51-52.
13.
Sembene Ousmane film Xala ( 1974) dramatizes the problems of postcolonial rule corrupted by neocolonial practices.
14.
Emperor54-55.
15.
Emperor60.

-114-

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Langston Hughes: Folk Dramatist in the Protest Tradition, 1921-1943
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Publication/Copyright Page iv
  • Dedication Page v
  • Contents ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Note xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Endnotes 12
  • Chapter 1 - Folk Comedy in Collaboration: The Mule Bone Affair 17
  • Endnotes 29
  • Chapter 2 - Radical Drama and the Black Community 33
  • Endnotes 54
  • Chapter 3 - The Tragic Mode: Mulatto 59
  • Endnotes 74
  • Chapter 4 - The Gilpin Players and the Karamu Comedies 79
  • Endnotes 97
  • Chapter 5 - The Karamu Tragedies 101
  • Endnotes 114
  • Additional Info *
  • Chapter 6 - The Harlem Suitcase Theatre 117
  • Endnotes 136
  • Chapter 7 - Community Theatre, Black Iconography, and World War II 141
  • Notes 159
  • Notes 165
  • Notes 170
  • Afterword 173
  • Bibliography 175
  • Index 181
  • About the Author *
  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies *
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