real-life writing tasks. And as testers strive for "authenticity" and cognitive complexity in their assessments, questions need to be asked about whether such strivings lead beyond the construct boundaries of writing skill and encroach on other abilities that may be less amenable to instruction.
All writing tests used in admissions are necessarily simulations of real-world writing tasks. Brief essay writing tasks, essay revision tasks, and sentence revision tasks all fail as realistic representations of writing as most of us know it. The design of writing assessments thus becomes an optimization procedure to determine what mix of assessment types will be most beneficial. The evidence available suggests that a balancing of drafting and revision tasks would be desirable.
Anastasi A. ( 1967). "Psychology, psychologists, and psychological testing". American Psychologist, 22, 297-306.
Bejar I. I. ( 1991). "A methodology for scoring open-ended architectural design problems". Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 522-532.
Bennett R. E. ( 1993). "On the meanings of constructed response". In R. E. Bennett and W. C. Ward (Eds.), Construction versus choice in cognitive measurement: Issues in constructed response, performance testing, and portfolio assessment (pp. 1-27). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Associates.
Breland H. M., Camp R., Jones R. J., Rock D., & Morris M. ( 1987). Assessing writing skill. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
Breland H. M., & Duran R. P. ( 1985). "Assessing English composition skills in Spanish-speaking populations". Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 309-318.
Breland H. M., & Griswold P. A. ( 1982). "Use of a performance test as a criterion in a differential validity study". Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 713-721.
Collins A., & Gentner D. ( 1980). "A framework for a cognitive theory of writing". In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 51-72). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Assessment in Higher Education:Issues of Access, Quality, Student Development, and Public Policy. Contributors: Samuel J. Messick - Editor. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication year: 1999. Page number: 108.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.