Phonological Processes in Literacy: A Tribute to Isabelle Y. Liberman

By Susan A. Brady; Donald P. Shankweiler et al. | Go to book overview

15
Chinese, Phoenicians, and the Orthographic Cipher of English

Philip B. Gough Margaret A. Walsh University of Texas at Austin

To read English, one must know two things. One must know the English language, and one must know the orthography of English. Put otherwise, in order to read, one must be able to recognize the words on a page, and then one must understand those words.

We call this the Simple View of reading ( Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990.) It is disavowed by most scholars, probably because they believe that the processes of recognizing words and comprehending text are inextricably intertwined. But there is evidence that we can think of them as separate skills.

For one thing, the two processes can be dissociated ( Gough & Tunmer, 1986). The average 5-year old can understand a story, yet cannot read, and the dyslexic can exhibit superior listening comprehension accompanied by decidedly inferior decoding ( Vellutino, 1979). On the other hand, many of us can, like Milton's daughters, adequately decode a language we do not understand, and the hyperlexic can evidently decode his native language quite skillfully, yet understand it poorly ( Healy, 1982).

Moreover, there is evidence that even within the normal range of reading ability the two processes make separate contributions to reading ability. The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory measured the decoding, listening and reading skills of 210 bilingual first graders and took the same measures in the second, third, and fourth grades. Hoover and Gough ( 1990) have analyzed these data to show that, at each grade level, the product of the child's decoding and listening scores correlates .84 or above with reading.

So we hold that reading ability (R) equals the product of decoding ability (D) and listening ability (C): R = D x C. We know little about listening ability; we guess that it is made of up knowledge of the language, combined with

-199-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Phonological Processes in Literacy: A Tribute to Isabelle Y. Liberman
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 266

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.