The Transformation of European Politics, 1763-1848

By Paul W. Schroeder | Go to book overview

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

THIS book has a simple central theme: European international politics was transformed between 1763 and 1848, with the decisive turning-point coming in 1813-15. A fundamental change occurred in the governing rules, norms, and practices of international politics. Those of the eighteenth century, with its competitive and conflictual balance of power, gave way to those of a nineteenth-century concert and political equilibrium. This change led to striking results. The most obvious and demonstrable was a dramatic decline in the incidence, scope, length, and violence of wars in the nineteenth century as compared to the eighteenth. (Overall, the ratio of battlefield deaths to the total population of Europe was about seven times as great in the eighteenth as in the nineteenth century.)1 Just as important were the problems solved and crises peacefully managed by nineteenth-century methods that had been insoluble without war by eighteenth-century ones. The devices of international diplomacy--alliances, treaties, conferences, even the language of diplomacy itself--changed significantly in form and intent. So did the spirit and goals of international politics. Aims considered normal and permissible in the eighteenth century were banned in the nineteenth, practices once routinely sanctioned or prescribed were proscribed. One dramatic illustration of the change, frequently illustrated in the narrative to follow, is the frequency and normality of partition schemes in the eighteenth century--plans devised and efforts made to partition various states, either eliminating them completely or reducing them to impotence or dependent status, and the disappearance of these schemes in the post-Vienna era, to be replaced by norms, rules, and efforts devoted precisely to preserving the existence and guaranteeing the independence of the actors most threatened within the system. Many more signs of a dramatic shift in the purposes and goals

____________________
1
For the statistics, see J. S. Levy ( 1983); for this particular calculation, Schroeder ( 1986: 11).

-v-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Transformation of European Politics, 1763-1848
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 898

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.