The Transformation of European Politics, 1763-1848

By Paul W. Schroeder | Go to book overview

1
The European System, 1763-1787

The period after the Peace of Paris which concluded the Seven Years' War (1756-63) has often been described as one of relative stability. Certainly this is what many Europeans needed and wanted. The great world war of fifty years before, the War of the Spanish Succession ( 1702-14), had ended the threat of the hegemony of Louis XIV's France in Europe and had established a recognizable balance of power. Despite the efforts of some British and French statesmen to establish a durable peace by a system of collective security, however, old contests had continued after the Peace of Utrecht-Rastatt and new ones developed in the succeeding decades, involving Northern Europe, Italy, Germany, the Near East, the Polish succession, the Austrian succession, India, and the New World. A climax to forty years of indecisive balance-of-power struggle was reached in the Seven Years' War of 1756-63. Even wider and bloodier than the War of the Spanish Succession, it ended with all the belligerents tired of fighting and some of them exhausted. The outcome was decisive in both the maritime and Continental theatres, though in different ways. Britain clearly defeated France and Spain in the contest for colonies and control of the seas. The Continental struggle ended in a general military stalemate, but the political results were equally decisive and should have been more conducive to durable peace than clear-cut victory for one side or the other. France was defeated by Prussia on land as well by Britain at sea, and financially exhausted by the war. Prussia survived the war, but barely, and the aggressive spirit of King Frederick the Great was broken by it. Russia retired from the war into a profitable neutrality before it ended. This compelled Austria to abandon its central aims, to recover the province of Silesia, which Frederick had seized and held since 1740, and to reduce Prussia to second-rank status in Germany and Central Europe. The European post-war balance in 1763 looks like the one that characterized Europe after 1815. Britain was victorious and invulnerable on the seas, France defeated and weakened, Austria and Prussia worn out by war, Russia secure and dominant in the east and north.

-3-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Transformation of European Politics, 1763-1848
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 898

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.