The Road from Rio: Sustainable Development and the Nongovernmental Movement in the Third World

By Julie Fisher | Go to book overview

movement . . . The bureaucracy doesn't respond to their petitions, so they organize takeovers of unused or underused land. They use illegal methods to achieve a legal goal,"29

The second difficulty is being able to assess the relationship between old elites and new forces on the local as well as national levels. Whether old elites remain dominant or are successfully challenged remains problematical in any given situation. An analysis of 150 Third World case studies produced a "nil correlation" between GRO effectiveness and situations of social stratification. 30 In other words, inequality and repression sometimes inhibit organization and sometimes promote it. The degree to which outsiders ( GRSOs or International NGOS) can tip the balance and promote local organization in the absence of local initiative is also unclear. Once local leadership emerges, however, it often sustains itself by what Brown and Korten ( 1989:9) call "self-reinforcing escalation." Yet even regional GRO networks organized from below can be subject to burnout when confronted by determined repression or internal dissension.

Although worsening conditions further enhance the likelihood that local organizations will be created and will attract popular support, political monopolies are enormously resilient. Many parts of the Third World seem to be poised between the persistence of old power structures and the development of new organizations not yet able to effectively challenge them.

The interwoven texture of this tapestry about to be examined is perhaps its most interesting feature in country after country. In the chapters that follow, I shall try to shed more light on the complexities and wide variations in its texture and color as well as design. Chapter 2 is about the spread and significance of GROs, and Chapter 3 focuses on their horizontal networks. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with GRSOs in general and, more specifically, with those specializing in economic development, environment, and population. Chapter 6 focuses on GRSO networks. GRO and GRSO performance are the subjects of Chapter 7. Some patterns in the relationships between GROs and GRSOs, discussed in Chapter 8, appear to be particularly effective in promoting empowerment, acheiving sustainable development, and scaling out local efforts. The networks that GROs and GRSOs are establishing among themselves and with each other may presage their impact on national government power structures as well. The political impact of NGOs, a major theme of Volume 2, is already evident in some countries.


NOTES
1.
Joseph Van Arendonk, United Nations Population Fund, February 28, 1991.
2.
In 1991 the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund announced that they would no longer ignore military expenditures in determining whether governments obtain loans. See Mathews, 1991.
3.
Cordoba-Novion and Sachs, 1987.

-18-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Road from Rio: Sustainable Development and the Nongovernmental Movement in the Third World
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 266

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.