You have changed my life forever. I have never thought about the connection between power and behavior before. One year from today I am going to be powerful.
A Kenyan woman 1
Intellectuals, when isolated from the social movement, become sterile. . . . Contrarily, when intellectuals become an integral, organic part of the social movement, they have a crucial catalytic effect on it, in a mutaully fertilizing, creative relationship . . . indispensable for the social movement to make qualitative leaps forward. 2
Influencing people to build capacity to act on their own behalf, originally described by David McClelland ( 1970), has been called the "central paradox of social development." 3 The top-down-bottom-up relationship, designed to empower, is itself based on unequal power.
Previous chapters have dealt with the building blocks of this insider- outsider relationship: GROS, GRSOS, their horizontal networks, and, finally, what makes GROs and GRSOs able as individual organizations to achieve sustainable development and empowerment. This chapter focuses on the relationships between NGOs that are tied most closely to the resolution of this "central paradox."
Outsiders, whether they represent governments, INGOS, the World Bank, or GRSOS, all confront this dilemma, although not all take full account of it. Before dealing with the unique characteristics of GRO-GRSO relationships and the institutional relationships that affect organizational perfor