THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN CHINA
To assess the extent to which Chinese experience in the field of mass media can serve developing countries, it is necessary first to note certain unique features of China, her society and her past.
The immense size of China imposed on all who would rule it the dual problem of unification and control. In the third century B.C., when China was divided by the rival kings of the Warring States, its first emperor, Ch'in Shih Huang(d. 210 B.C.) won his right to his Imperial title by uniting the country. In his ruthless enforcement of the strict laws of his own state over the other states, he introduced draconian measures to consolidate unity of his empire and gave particular attention to the media of communication in his day. First, he hastened to standardize the written language, a move which incidentally proved to be one of the most effective, unifying factors in Chinese culture down the centuries. Shortly afterwards, he controlled the ideas which could be communicated by ordering all books preaching doctrines other than those approved by the governing officials of the state to be burned.
The process of unification was further consolidated--and China's frontiers expanded--under the succeeding Han dynasty whose long imprint on Chinese culture survives to this day. Under the Han emperors, the scholars and officials of the newly centralized empire became the transmitters of a new orthodoxy -the ethical and political doctrines of Confucius which formed the cement of Chinese society to the present century. The Confucian classics were the foundation of education, and success in examinations based on this classical orthodoxy
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Publication information: Book title: The Chinese Model:A Political, Economic and Social Survey. Contributors: Werner Klatt - Editor, Institute of Modern Asian Studies - OrganizationName. Publisher: Hong Kong University Press. Place of publication: Hong Kong. Publication year: 1965. Page number: 48.