Czechoslovakia between Stalin and Hitler: The Diplomacy of Edvard Benes in the 1930s

By Igor Lukes | Go to book overview

Stalin's conquest of the heart of Europe was a consequence of Hitler's assault on the established order, and not many politicians in the 1930s, the decade of swine, could say that they saw the emerging Nazi threat with the same clarity as did Edvard Beneš.


Notes
1.
Robert Kvaček et al., Československý rok 1938 ( Prague: Panordma, 1988), 11.
2.
Gelford Taylor, Munich: The Price of Peace ( Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979), 681-99, 706-9, and passim.
3.
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 (henceforth DGFP), series D, vol. 2 ( Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949), document no. 221, 360-61.
4.
Survey of International Affairs, 1938, 2:143.
5.
General Jodl's diary presented before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, in Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (TMWC) ( Nuremberg: International Military Tribunal, 1947), 28: 345-90.
6.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939 (henceforth DBFP), 3d series, vol. 2 ( London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1949), document no. 830, 289.
7.
Paul Schmidt, Hitler's Interpreter ( New York: Macmillan, 1951), 69.
8.
DGFP, series D, vol. 2, document no. 448, 727-30.
9.
Royal Institute of International Affairs, Documents on International Affairs, 1938 ( London: Oxford University Press, 1939), 2:184-88.
10.
Survey of International Affairs, 1938, 2:302.
11.
DBFP, 3d series, vol. 2, document no. 830, 289.
12.
Gerhard L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Starting World War II, 1937-1939 ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 423-25.
13.
Norman H. Baynes (ed.), The Speeches of Adotf Hitler: April 1922-August 1939 ( London: Oxford University Press, 1942), 2:1487-99.
14.
See especially, Martin Broszat, "Das Sudetendeutsche Freikorps," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 9 ( January 1961): 30-49 and many other authors, e.g., Taylor, Munich: The Price of Peace, 798-99.
15.
Zdeněk Procházka, et al. Vojenské dějiny Československa, ( Prague: Naše Vojsko, 1987) 3:496.
16.
DGFP, series D, vol. 2, document no. 481, 764.
17.
R. G. D. Laffan, Survey of International Affairs, 1938 ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1951), 2:311.
18.
PRO, FO 408/68. C 9800/4839/18, Major R. Sutton-Pratt to Viscount Halifax, the British Legation, Prague, 13 September 1938.
19.
British Minister Newton recommended Sutton-Pratt's analyses of the Czechoslovak-German crisis as "careful and unbiased observations and enquiries." DBFP, 3d series, vol. 2, document no. 916, 367.
20.
Survey of International Affairs, 1938, 2:311.
21.
This is not to be confused with martial law because there was a significant legal difference between stanné právo ( Standrecht) and martial law. Those arrested under stanné právo were tried by civilian, not military, courts although the procedure was accelerated.
22.
DGFP, series D, vol. 2, document no. 502, 812.
23.
Times, 16 September 1938.
24.
Interview with Z. L., a Czechoslovak army reserve officer, stationed in the Sudetenland in 1938.
25.
This is stated or implied in DGFP, series D, vol. 2, document no. 481, 764.

-263-

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