Abstract : opposed to Concrete (q.v.); viewed apart from concrete form; e.g., the abstract beauty of a line, where the line not only serves to inclose a form but has an independent beauty of its own (66). So also, abstract beauty of color, where color is independently a source of esthetic enjoyment, apart from the object to which it may belong. So, also, music is the most abstract of the arts, because it is entirely withdrawn from the concrete and appeals directly to the esthetic sense, and thence to the imagination (451, 452). For further remarks on abstract, see Concrete.
Academic : having the qualities that characterize the official standards of excellence maintained by the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, founded in France by Louis XIV. These have varied from time to time in details, but are based upon a preference for form over color; and upon an idealization of form, in imitation of the purity of antique sculpture. Hence the synonym Classic. Perfection of line and form is aimed at in preference to individuality and character.
Action : the gesture or attitude of a figure, expressive of character or sentiment. See Expression, Movement.
Æsthetic . See Esthetic.
Analysis : opposed to Synthesis (q.v.); the process of distinguishing between and studying separately the ingredients of an object. Thus the analysis of an elm involves an examination of its stem, the spread of its branches, the way in which the smaller are attached to the larger and the latter to the stem, the character of the foliage both in masses and in individual leaves, the effect upon the color and form of the foliage under the action of sunlight or of wind, and so on. Most of the great artists have trained themselves at first by severe analysis, after which they render their subject by means of synthesis. Having learned to put in, they become learned in leaving out.
Architectonic : literally, of or pertaining to construction; having the qualities of form and structure deliberately built up to produce a desired effect upon the imagination: e.g., the architectonics of poetry -- that is to say, the form and structure of versification. The architectonics of a picture, in allusion to the formal arrangement of its lines and masses, its full and empty spaces (q.v.); more particularly of a composition planned to occupy and conform to a given space in connection with architecture -- a mural painting (q.v.).
Arrangement : a principle of composition whereby the artist, having selected from a variety of details the ones best adapted to his conception of the subject, arranges them, with deliberate intent, to produce a certain impression on the spectator (99 et seq.). See Selection.
Art: by its derivation from a Greek word, "to fit," means primarily the fitting of form to an idea.
Art for art's sake: a catchword adopted in the last quarter of the nineteenth century by the followers of Manet, who asserted that the first requisite of a painter was to be able to paint. They began by saying that the subject of a picture was of little importance, the main thing for the artist being an opportunity of artistic expression; and, in their disgust of the, so-called, story-telling picture, in which considerations of painting as painting are sacrificed to mere attractiveness of subject, ended by asserting that subject was of no importance at all. Now that the dust of argument is settled, it has established the truth that, as Professor John C. Van Dyke says, "the art of a picture is not in the subject but in the manner of presenting it."
Articulation : the art of joining together; for example, of correctly joining the branches


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How to Study Pictures
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations ix
  • Author's Note xiii
  • I - Introduction 3
  • II - Cimabue -- Giotto 8
  • III - Masaccio -- Mantegna 20
  • IV - Fra Angelico -- Jan Van Eyck 37
  • V - Botticelli -- Memling 52
  • VI - Perogino -- Bellini 68
  • VII - Raphael -- Wolgemuth 85
  • VIII - Da Vinci -- DÜrer 109
  • IX - Titian -- Holbein the Younger 125
  • X - Correggio -- Michelangelo 142
  • XI - Veronese -- Tintoretto 159
  • XII - Rubens -- Velasquez 177
  • XIII - Van Dyck -- Frans Hals 195
  • XIV - Rembrandt -- Murillo 209
  • XV - Jacob van Ruisdael -- Poussin 228
  • XVI - Hobbema -- Claude Lorrain 242
  • XVII - Watteau -- Hogarth 255
  • XVIII - Reynolds -- Gainsborough 272
  • XIX - Constable -- Turner 287
  • XX - David -- Delacroix 304
  • XXI - Rousseau -- Corot 322
  • XXII - Breton -- Millet 339
  • XXIII - Courbet -- Boecklin 353
  • XXIV - Rossetti -- Holman Hunt 371
  • XXV - Piloty -- Fortuny 391
  • XXVI - Manet -- Israels 404
  • XXVII - Puvis de Chavannes -- GÉrÔme 423
  • XXVIII - Whistler -- Sargent 441
  • XXIX - Monet -- Hashimoto Gaho 457
  • Concluding Note 479
  • Parrallel Chronology of Painters Included *
  • A Brief Bibliography of Books On Art Readily Procurable 481
  • Glossary of Terms 484
  • Index 493


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