example, Uzbekistan agreed in 1994 to supply gas to Kazakhstan in return for Kazakh products used in oil and gas industry 252 and to Kyrgyzstan in return for agricultural products, meat, and some manufactured goods. 253
The rivals have reacted differently to regional cooperation attempts. Turkey refrained from any attempt to discourage such a practice, while Iran has clearly supported any form of regional cooperation, such as the economic union of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. 254 Because of its weakening impact on CA-Russian ties, these two rivals logically have every reason to encourage regional cooperation. However, the Central Asians have blamed Russia for using its power to stop this trend. A Kazakh presidential aide, Umirserik Kasenov, urged Russia "to curb its neoimperialist tendencies" toward the CA states and stop "obstructing local integration processes or the expansion of cooperation" between these states and other ECO states. 255
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Publication information: Book title: Regional Security and the Future of Central Asia:The Competition of Iran, Turkey, and Russia. Contributors: Hooman Peimani - Author. Publisher: Praeger Publishers. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1998. Page number: 120.
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