In Chapters 8 and 9, the focus shifts to the changing role of evaluation and the pressures and constraints that arise on evaluators. Some of these pressures and constraints are external to the evaluator's organization. In Chapter 8, Melendy sets forth a wide range of issues that arise as evaluators attempt to fit the savings achieved through demand-side programs into long-term forecasts of supply. In Chapter 9, Wirtshafter examines evaluation from the perspective of public utility commissions.
Other pressures come to bear on evaluators from within their own organizations. In Chapter 10, Hartnett and Kelleher examine the issue of timing and the tension between pressures to do short-term evaluations on the one hand, and the need for long-range planning forecasts on the other. Reed, Hall, and Calhoun propose a restructuring of the traditional "arm's-length" relationship between organizational units charged with evaluation and those charged with policy design and implementation.
Chapters 12 and 13 examine strategies for meeting the needs of low- income energy consumers. Here the consequences of an energy program's sectoral emphasis -- on action or private action -- come into focus. In Chapter 12, Markee, Murray, and Pedersen report on a public- sector, low-income program. In Chapter 13, Lee and Callaway explore a private-sector program.
Chapters 14 and 15 consider prospects for evaluation as energy program design undergoes paradigm shift that goes beyond the transformation to the demand-side perspective. In Chapter 14, Prahl and Schlegel make the case that evaluation is being stretched and challenged by the emerging paradigm of "market transformation." Advocates of the market transformation perspective urge attention to the long-term effects of programs on markets, in terms specifically of market changes that make the continuation of the specific programs or interventions unnecessary. In Chapter 15, Van Liere, Winch, Standen, Feldman, and Brugger examine specific examples of the dramatic implications that the market transformation paradigm carries for evaluation questions and methodology.