The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

6
The Dutch Press

LINDA PEGMAN DOEZEMA

Not unlike the publications of other foreign-language groups in the United States, the life story of the Dutch ethnic press parallels the story of Dutch immigration to the United States and is closely correlated to the acculturation process by which immigrant groups become ethnic groups. As argued by scholars of the ethnic press, 1 the function of these publications varies as the immigrant group works its way through the acculturation and assimilation process and displays decreasing dependence on the publications.

In his study of the immigrant press, Robert E. Park found thirteen Dutch- language publications in existence in 1920. 2 Joshua Fishman, Robert Hayden, and Mary Warshauer note that in 1930 non-English-language publications were still in the majority, but by 1960 English-language publications were in the majority among papers serving Americans of Dutch descent. 3 In 1979, out of sixteen Dutch ethnic publications, only one was published solely in Dutch and three were using Dutch and English. 4

The Dutch ethnic press has not had a stable existence. Out of approximately 105 publications that came into existence between 1849 and 1979, 87 either died, merged into other Dutch ethnic publications, or became general and non- ethnic periodicals. Of the sixteen remaining publications only five were published prior to World War I: The Banner, Church Herald (formerly The Leader), Missionary Monthly (formerly De Heidenwereld), New Horizons (originally Holland Home News), and De Wachter (The watchman). Nine of the sixteen were begun between World Wars I and II. Since the ethnic press was a product of immigration and because its persistence is, to some extent, based upon new arrivals, 5 the instability of the Dutch-American press may be partly attributed to the fact that Dutch immigration has been sporadic, taking place for the most part in several major waves rather than in a continuous flow.

Another destabilizing factor to be considered is the rate at which the immigrants discontinued the use of the Dutch language. These transplants were encouraged both by the preceding emigrants who greeted them in America and by the American economic and political structures to become Americanized. This proc

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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