The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

24
The Slovak-American Press

M. MARK STOLARIK

While the Slovaks are one of the smaller ethnic groups in the United States (approximately 500,000 came from the Kingdom of Hungary before World War I, and today they number between 1 and 2 million), they have published at least 220 different newspapers, ranging from dailies to quarterlies, since 1885. 1 More than half these newspapers were established and edited by about thirty individuals or organizations, and these produced eleven kinds of publications that reflected four distinct political orientations: Slovak nationalist, Magyarone, Czechoslovak, and socialist or communist. The newspapers appeared in the principal areas of Slovak settlement in the United States ( Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, New York, and New Jersey), and they mirrored the religious composition of the Slovak people (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Greek Catholic). The Slovak press in America, therefore, was as complex as that of any other group in this country.

The independent, commercial, general news press appeared first among American Slovaks, and it would eventually produce eighty-seven titles, or 40 percent of the overall total. 2 Its first title was a weekly Bulletin of American and world news printed on a mimeograph machine by Ján Slovenský, an information officer at the Austro-Hungarian Consulate in Pittsburgh in 1885. In 1886 he teamed up with his cousin Július Wolf (a saloonkeeper), and together they launched the more ambitious Amerikanszko-Szlovenszke Noviny (American-Slovak news). It was written in the Spiš dialect of eastern Slovakia, utilized Magyar orthography, and affirmed loyalty to the King of Hungary, who was also Emperor of Austria. 3

The linguistic and political orientation of the first Slovak newspaper in the United States both pleased and offended a small group of intellectuals who had accompanied their overwhelmingly peasant and worker countrymen to the United States. The Roman Catholic priest Jozef Kossalko praised the paper while the ex-seminarian Peter V. Rovnianek condemned the linguistic and political policies of Amerikanszko-Szlovenszke Noviny, and Rovnianek eventually won. By 1889 he had persuaded the founders to make him editor, to allow him to publish in the central Slovak (literary) dialect, and to foster the cause of Slovak nationalism.

-353-

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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