did not linger long at itemizing grievances. She was more at home with proclaiming "redemption" than calling for "purification." She was, simply, more a club leader than a movement leader.
Finally, for scholars, Ward Howe continues to be an anomaly. Her divergent private and public lives may invite some to question the authenticity of a woman who survived a miserable marriage only to parade it as "the nation's most sacred institution"; who found motherhood a distraction from writing, yet founded a national holiday honoring mothers; who suffered repeated bouts of depression, yet became the voice of eternal optimism. To be sure, her troubles antedated her leadership in the movement, but the inconsistencies remain a mystery. However, her rhetorical status as "patriotic crusader for woman's rights" capably filled the movement's need to mainstream its message, and her legendary status as "Great American Mother" gave the movement a veneer of propriety that it so desperately desired.
Primary sources are the Julia Ward Howe Collections, Houghton Library (HL), Harvard, and Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe; Library of Congress; Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College Library, Northampton, Massachusetts.
Howe Julia Ward. Julia Ward Howe and the Woman Suffrage Movement: A Selection from Her Speeches and Essays. Intro. Florence Howe Hall. Boston: D. Estes, 1913. (WSM)
A Reply to Dr. E. H. Clarke's 'Sex in Education.' Ed. and intro. Julia Ward Howe. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1874.
Howe Julia Ward. Is Polite Society Polite? and Other Essays. Boston: Lamson, Wolffe, 1895.
-----. Modern Society. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1881.
-----. The Woman's Journal. Selected Entries. 1870- 1893. (TWJ)
-----. Passion Flowers. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1854.
-----. Words for the Hour. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1856.
-----. The World's Own. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1857.
-----. A Trip to Cuba. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1860.
-----. Reminiscences, 1819-99. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900.
-----. Later Lyrics. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1866.
-----. From the Oak to the Olive. A Plain Record of a Pleasant Journey. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1868.
Clifford Deborah Pickman. Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Biography of Julia Ward Howe. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. See reviews by Karen J. Blair, Journal of American History 66 ( March 1980):952-953; Judy Barrett Litoff, American Historical Review 85