Ploughs and Politicks: Charles Read of New Jersey and His Notes on Agriculture, 1715-1774

By Carl Raymond Woodward | Go to book overview

Thirteen: Jurist

THE provincial courts of Read's time, based upon the English judicial system, were essentially the same as those prescribed by an ordinance of governor and council in 1704.1 Although now and then alterations were instituted by royal instructions, governor's ordinance, or provincial legislation, the general structure was maintained until the close of the colonial period.

Altogether there were seven groups of courts. The lowest were the justice's courts, held by justices of the peace, with jurisdiction in minor civil cases. Above these were the county courts of general sessions and of common pleas which met quarterly at the county seats. The courts of general sessions were conducted by the county judge and dealt with criminal cases; the courts of common pleas, which dealt with civil cases, had three presiding judges, a president and two others. Above the county courts was the supreme court of judicature, consisting of a chief justice and two associate justices, having jurisdiction in all pleas, both civil and criminal, which sat alternately at Perth Amboy and Burlington--two sessions of eight days each in a year. In addition to attending the regular sessions, the supreme court justices traveled the circuits once a year, holding general assizes and sessions of oyer and terminer and of common pleas at the county seats, assisted by the local justices of the peace.

In addition to these, there were four courts with which the governor was directly concerned. The vice-admiralty court, having jurisdiction in maritime affairs and authority to enforce statutes for regulating commerce, was headed by the governor as vice-admiral. In trying cases he had the assistance of commissioners of his selection, usually designated "com

____________________
1
Richard S. Field, The Provincial Courts of New Jersey, N. J. Hist. Soc. Col., III ( New York. 1849), 256-262.

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Ploughs and Politicks: Charles Read of New Jersey and His Notes on Agriculture, 1715-1774
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • BOOK I Charles Read of New Jersey 1
  • One: the Man and His Times 3
  • Two: Youth 22
  • Three: New Jerseyman 39
  • Four: Customs Collector 54
  • Five: Land Speculator 64
  • Six: Countryman 70
  • Seven: Ironmaster 86
  • Eight: Secretary 97
  • Nine: Legislator 121
  • Ten: Councillor 145
  • Eleven: Colonel 164
  • Twelve: Indian Commissioner 179
  • Thirteen: Jurist 195
  • Fourteen: Exile 212
  • BOOK II Reads Notes on Agriculture 227
  • Introduction 229
  • One: the Husbandry of the Soil 235
  • Two: the Husbandry of Plants 254
  • Three: the Husbandry of Animals 322
  • Four: the Husbandry of Bees 366
  • Five: Farm Structures and Farm Implements 368
  • Six: the Husbandry of the Household 385
  • Seven: Fisheries 399
  • APPENDIX A Sketch of Charles Read (from Aaron Leaming's Diary, November 14, 1775) 404
  • APPENDIX B Inventory of the Personal Estate of Charles Read IV 407
  • Bibliography 413
  • Glossary 443
  • Index 451
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