IAGO. A character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare (q.v.). He is a psychopath, who is completely selfish and has no use for "love and duty." In the original Italian source, Iago killed Desdemona with a stocking filled with sand.
Bibliography: Orgel S. 1968. Iago Am. Imago. 25:258-73.
IBSEN, HENRIK (1828-1906). A Norwegian dramatist and poet. The family was reduced to near poverty when his parents lost their wealth in a business venture. At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed to an apothecary, as he could not afford to study medicine. The frustration and unhappiness of these early years never left him and are reflected in his dramas, which often include doctors ministering to sick minds. He possessed a penetrating insight into the psychological conflicts found within the family and within society. His plays, dealing with such social issues as marriage, corruption, venereal disease, government, man's delusions of superiority, and mental disorders, caused the critics to assert that they were studies in insanity best fitted for the lecture room in Bedlam (q.v.). Among his works are the verse dramas Brand ( 1866) and Peer Gynt ( 1867) and the plays A Doll's House ( 1879), Ghosts ( 1881), Rosmersholm ( 1886), The Lady from the Sea ( 1888), Hedda Gabler ( 1890), and The Master Builder ( 1892). Insanity and its causes are recurrent themes throughout them. A series of severe strokes toward the end of his life so destroyed his memory, that he could not even remember the alphabet.
Bibliography: Meyer M. 1974. Ibsen.
ID. A term first used by Georg Groddeck (q.v.). Sigmund Freud (q.v.) borrowed it from him and used it to indicate that part of the personality that is inherited and unconscious.
Bibliography: Freud S. 1923. The ego and the id.
IDEAL AND NOTIONAL INSANITY.SeeINSANITY, IDEAL AND NOTIONAL.