Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States

By Modibo Coulibaly; Rodney D. Green et al. | Go to book overview

Table 6.13 Dispersal of Public Housing Units Placed under ACC, 1968-1974
Total In CC In NCC Index
Years Units PHAs % PHAs % (Dn)
1968 57,229 44,063 77.0 13,166 23.0 0.27
1969 69,843 48,837 69.9 21,006 30.1 0.20
1970 64,553 49,174 76.2 15,379 23.8 0.26
1971 37,576 28,653 76.3 8,923 23.8 0.26
1972 48,899 39,229 80.2 9,670 19.8 0.30
1973 19,890 12,390 62.3 7,500 37.7 0.12
1974 13,398 6,506 48.6 6,892 51.4 0.01
Total 311,388 228,852 73.5 82,536 26.5 0.23
Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1974.
Notes: ACC = Annual Contribution Contract; CC = central city; NCC = noncentral city.

Based on the assumed definition of income integration (an equal division of units between the two geographic areas), the estimate of the index of income separation in 1968 is 0.27 (see Table 6.13). Overall, for the period 1968- 1974, the estimate Ds of the index of income separation is 0.23.

The distribution of the Section 8, Section 236, and Rent Supplement programs units among central-city and noncentral-city areas in 1977 is shown in Table 6.14.

For units with a known geographic location, the estimate Dn is

Dn = 10.71 - 0.501 = 0.21 (28)


SUMMARY

The analysis of the patterns of income and racial distribution of subsidized low-income housing shows continuing racial segregation, despite the adoption of the Civil Rights and Fair Housing Acts, and income separation, despite a relative decline in the concentration of housing projects in low-income central-city areas.

Between 1968 and 1974, over 73 percent of subsidized housing units leased to tenants were located in low-income areas. In 1981 and 1983, this proportion declined to 70 percent and 66 percent, respectively. This reflected to some extent significant variation by housing subsidy programs, inasmuch as

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Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 3
  • 2 - Housing, History, and Schools of Thought 5
  • Summary of the Post-Civil Rights Literature 17
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Development of Low-Income Housing in the United States 23
  • Summary 35
  • Notes 36
  • 4 - Research Procedure 43
  • Summary 58
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Patterns of Segregation in Low-Income Housing, 1932-1963 63
  • Conclusion About the PWA 69
  • Conclusions About the USHA 80
  • Conclusions About War Housing 86
  • Summary: Patterns of Segregation in the Early Period 92
  • Notes 94
  • 6 - Patterns of Racial Segregation and Economic Isolation, 1964-1992 101
  • Summary 117
  • Notes 119
  • 7 - Trends in Subsidized Housing Segregation 123
  • Summary 129
  • Notes 130
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusion 131
  • Appendix 135
  • Note 137
  • Selected Bibliography 139
  • Index 151
  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS 155
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