Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States

By Modibo Coulibaly; Rodney D. Green et al. | Go to book overview

integration before the civil rights reforms to racial homogeneity afterwards. Segregation in the later period is generally by program, many family and elderly housing projects being occupied predominantly or exclusively by blacks and by whites respectively.

Housing projects were less concentrated in low-income areas during the post-civil rights period. This was primarily a result of significant construction of elderly housing outside of central cities. A comparison of the indices of income separation for family and elderly housing projects indicated that elderly housing was significantly less separated by income than family housing. The 1937-1969 index of income separation was 0.24 for family housing projects and 0.11 for elderly projects; the post-1969 values declined to 0.18 and 0.06 respectively.


NOTES
1.
Often housing projects located in such areas were liquidated in the private housing market.
2.
Not included are three additional housing projects located in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
3.
See U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, Urban Renewal Administration, Urban Renewal Project Characteristics ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, September 1955); see also idem, Annual Report ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1963). The rehousing of displaced families was mandated by Title I of the 1949 Housing Act and Title III of the 1954 Housing Act.
4.
According to some accounts, there were seventeen different agencies in charge of the war housing program before the institution of the National Housing Agency.
5.
For a case study of how the conventional public housing for families in New Haven became predominantly black, see Ellen Gesmer, "Discrimination in Public Housing under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974: A Critique of the New Haven Experience," Urban Law Review 13 ( 1977): 49-80; see also U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, The Gautreaux Housing Demonstration: An Evaluation of its Impact on Participating Households ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1980), 101-122.

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Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 3
  • 2 - Housing, History, and Schools of Thought 5
  • Summary of the Post-Civil Rights Literature 17
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Development of Low-Income Housing in the United States 23
  • Summary 35
  • Notes 36
  • 4 - Research Procedure 43
  • Summary 58
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Patterns of Segregation in Low-Income Housing, 1932-1963 63
  • Conclusion About the PWA 69
  • Conclusions About the USHA 80
  • Conclusions About War Housing 86
  • Summary: Patterns of Segregation in the Early Period 92
  • Notes 94
  • 6 - Patterns of Racial Segregation and Economic Isolation, 1964-1992 101
  • Summary 117
  • Notes 119
  • 7 - Trends in Subsidized Housing Segregation 123
  • Summary 129
  • Notes 130
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusion 131
  • Appendix 135
  • Note 137
  • Selected Bibliography 139
  • Index 151
  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS 155
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