integration before the civil rights reforms to racial homogeneity afterwards.
Segregation in the later period is generally by program, many family and
elderly housing projects being occupied predominantly or exclusively by
blacks and by whites respectively.
Housing projects were less concentrated in low-income areas during the
post-civil rights period. This was primarily a result of significant construction of elderly housing outside of central cities. A comparison of the indices
of income separation for family and elderly housing projects indicated that
elderly housing was significantly less separated by income than family housing. The 1937-1969 index of income separation was 0.24 for family housing
projects and 0.11 for elderly projects; the post-1969 values declined to 0.18
and 0.06 respectively.
Often housing projects located in such areas were liquidated in the private housing market.
Not included are three additional housing projects located in Puerto Rico and
the U.S. Virgin Islands.
See U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, Urban Renewal Administration, Urban Renewal Project Characteristics ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Housing and Home
Finance Agency, September 1955); see also idem, Annual Report ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1963). The rehousing of displaced families
was mandated by Title I of the 1949 Housing Act and Title III of the 1954 Housing
According to some accounts, there were seventeen different agencies in charge
of the war housing program before the institution of the National Housing Agency.
For a case study of how the conventional public housing for families in New
Haven became predominantly black, see Ellen Gesmer, "Discrimination in Public
Housing under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974: A Critique of
the New Haven Experience," Urban Law Review 13 ( 1977): 49-80; see also U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and
Research, The Gautreaux Housing Demonstration: An Evaluation of its Impact on
Participating Households ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1980), 101-122.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States.
Contributors: Modibo Coulibaly - Author, Rodney D. Green - Author, David M. James - Author.
Publisher: Praeger Publishers.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1998.
Page number: 130.
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