it is not constrained or limited by them. It is not a collection of reminiscences or anecdotal chit-chat any more than it is a list of vacuous dates. Thinking in history means being literate within these frames and being capable of analysis, synthesis, and case building. To achieve these goals, students need to have both opportunities to reason in history and guidance from history teachers who are able to think flexibly, dynamically, and powerfully within their discipline.
The research reported in this chapter was supported in part by a grant from the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), United States Department of Education, to the Center for the Study of Learning, Learning Research and Development Center; in part by the Mellon Foundation; and in part by support to the first author from the Spencer Foundation. The opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the position of the sponsoring agencies, and no endorsement should be inferred.
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