Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

the front's newspaper, Union. The economic situation continued to worsen, and Alia was unable to do anything about it. On February 20, 1991, more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Tirana and they pulled down Enver Hoxha's statue in the central square of the city. In response, Alia reintroduced censorship.

The Albanian Communist party (called Albanian Party of Labor) controlled the media. It polled 67 percent of the votes or 169 seats in parliament out of the available 250. The Democratic party won 30 percent or 75 seats. The countryside supported the communists, but the cities voted for change. Following the elections, Ramiz Alia was appointed president for a five-year term, and he resigned his positions in the party hierarchy. A new premier, Fatos Nano, took office. The Democratic party refused to join a coalition government and remained in opposition. In 1992, Alia was removed from the presidency.


Bibliography

Biberaj Elez. "Albania, The Last Domino," in Ivo Banac, ed. Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca-London, 1992).

Anti-Fascist Council for National Liberation. This organization, a cover group for the Albanian Communist party in its quest for power, was established on May 24, 1944. It was declared to be the Supreme Executive Council and Legislative Organ of the Albanian nation. The chairman of the council was Enver Hoxha, (see Hoxha, Enver) general secretary of the Communist party. He was also the supreme commander of the Albanian Army of National Liberation (see Army of National Liberation). In later 1944, the National Liberation Movement was renamed the National Liberation Front, but the name change did not alter the organization's composition or purposes. The first decree issued by its leadership forbade King Zog's return from exile. On October 24, 1944, the front was transformed into the Provisional Democratic Government of Albania. Hoxha was named prime minister. By November, the Germans were forced to withdraw from Albania, and the anticommunist resistance was crushed. The armed forces were controlled by the communists, and they were soon in control of Albania as a whole. This was the only country in Eastern Europe that did not have Soviet soldiers on its soil when communists came into power. Hoxha's support came mainly from the Yugoslavian communist agents directed by Josip Broz Tito.


Bibliography

Prifti Peter R. Socialist Albania Since 1944: Domestic and Foreign Developments ( Cambridge, MA, 1978).

Army of National Liberation. This army was formed by the communists in March 1943 in order to fight the Italian and German occupiers of Albania. It united guerrilla bands that had operated since 1941 in remote areas of the country. The leadership came almost entirely from the Albanian Communist party. Foreign advisors joined the army from the Partisans of Yugoslavia, headed by Josip Broz Tito. A general staff for

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