sure, since Tito's men would not want to give up the province of Kosovo to a socialist Albania. All contacts between the leaders of the two groups were cut off, and civil war began in Albania.
In the summer of 1943, Allied forces landed in Sicily, and Italy surrendered to the Allies. The Italian soldiers in Albania surrendered to the Partisans and handed over their military equipment. The Germans continued the struggle, however. The communists then decided to eliminate the Balli Kombetar because the leaders of this group were no longer fighting the occupiers. The Balli Kombetar could not resist effectively. Its leaders were forced to turn to the Germans for help. Their joint offensive inflicted great harm on the Partisans, but they lost public support. After one last offensive in the summer of 1944 which proved ineffective, the Germans withdrew from Albania. The communists could then concentrate on fighting the nationalists.
By November 1944, the Balli Kombetar lost and its leaders fled the country. However, new challengers appeared on the scene. Abas Kupi, a member of the General Council of the National Liberation Front, established a so-called Legality Organization in September 1944. Kupi was a respected Geg leader who supported the return of King Zog to Albania. Kupi was then declared an enemy of the Albanian people by the communists. He was also accused of being a British agent. The Partisans conducted a successful offensive against the ill-equipped forces of the Legality Organization and annihilated them. In September 1944, the communists were the victors of the civil war in Albania.
Prifti Peter R., Socialist Albania Since 1944: Domestic and Foreign Developments ( Cambridge, MA, 1978).
Collective Leadership in Albania. After Stalin's death in 1953, Enver Hoxha (see Hoxha, Enver) endeavored to copy the new Soviet leaders' method of rule, called "collective leadership." Fearful of Tito's Yugoslavia, and of possible internal disturbances after the passing of the Soviet dictator, Hoxha dropped several of his titles and offices. These included the posts of foreign and defense ministers. However, he still retained his title of prime minister and general secretary of the Albanian Communist party. At the same time, he combined several ministries reducing their numbers from nineteen to ten. Mehemet Shehu (see Shehu, Mehemet) was removed from his post as secretary of the secretariat of the Communist party, but he retained his membership in the Central Committee.
In July 1954, Hoxha even gave up the prime ministership and gave that post to Shehu. Albania broke its relations with the Soviet Union in 1961, and Hoxha once again resumed his various posts, including that of prime minister. It appears that collective leadership--in other words, an oligarchy, based on the monopoly of power by a single party--was not really suitable as a form of government in the communist system. Such a system needed a single dictator to function.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Dictionary of East European History since 1945. Contributors: Joseph Held - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1994. Page number: 48.
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