Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

his Romanian friend, Zhivkov made his daughter, Ludmilla, a member of the party's Central Committee and appointed her minister of education. She was also made to serve as the president of the Committee on Culture which was responsible for education and propaganda.

Zhivkov remained in power for nearly thirty-five years. He was finally removed on November 10, 1989, by reform-communists who were also following the Soviet line, this time the one laid down by Mikhail Gorbachev. His legacy includes an economically and morally bankrupt society, a country whose rebuilding will take many years--if not decades.


Bibliography

Brown J. F. The New Eastern Europe: The Khrushchev Era and After ( New York, 1966); McIntyre Robert J., Bulgaria: Politics, Economics and Society ( London, 1998); Staar Richard F. , The Communist Regimes of Eastern Europe ( Stanford, CA., 1989).

ZVENO (LINK). This small, politically active group in the 1930s gathered around a well-known Bulgarian intellectual, Dimo Kazasov. They called their organization Zveno, or Link, because their aim was to create conditions for greater national unity. They wanted to remain outside or, rather, above politics because the unity they envisaged was to be above political parties. They attracted several intellectual, political, and military leaders into their ranks. Zveno declared itself to have been alienated from the sterile struggles that characterized Bulgarian politics during the interwar years and wanted to solve what its members considered the perpetual moral and economic crisis of their fatherland. There were some strong supporters for Zveno's ideals among the higher echelons of Bulgaria's Military League. The league took advantage of the many cabinet crises and carried out a military coup d'etat on May 9, 1934, and installed a new government under the premiership of Kimon Georgiev. The real organizer of the coup, Damian Velchev, a member of the Zveno leadership, remained in the background. Zveno survived into the 1940s, but it never again played a prominent role in Bulgarian society. In 1948, it was merged into the Communist party.


Bibliography

Pundeff Marin, "Bulgaria," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, ( New York, 1992); Oren Nissan, Bulgarian Communism: The Road to Power, 1934-1944 ( New York 1971).

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