reformer communists were shunted aside, humiliated, and even imprisoned, there was no way the communist system could have been salvaged.
Golan Golia, 7he Czechoslovak Reform Movement: Communism in Crisis 1962-1968 ( Cambridge, 1971); Kusin Vladimir, The Intellectual Origins of the Prague Spring: The Development of Reformist Ideas in Czechoslovakia, 1956-1967 ( Cambridge, England, 1971); Tigrid Pavel , Why Dubcek Fell ( London, 1971); Valenta Jiri, Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia, 1968: Anatomy of a Decision ( Baltimore, MD, 1979).
Prochazka, Jaroslaw (1897- ). In 1917, Prochazka was a soldier in the Czech Legion that fought its way through Bolshevik lines in Russia on its way to the Pacific Ocean and evacuation by the British. He returned to Czechoslovakia in 1919. Soon, however, he went back to Moscow where he entered the Marx-Engels Institute in 1920. After finishing his schooling in the institute, Prochazka was appointed director of a state publishing firm in the Soviet Union. During the World War II, Prochazka was one of the founders of the Czechoslovak brigade and fought against the Germans. He returned to Czechoslovakia in 1945 as a general of the Soviet army. In 1948, he was appointed chief of staff of the armed forces of his homeland. The following year, he was appointed a member of the Central Committee of the Communist party. In 1950, he became deputy minister for defense. Seven years later, in 1957, he was named chairman of the Department of History at Charles University, although he did not have a college degree. In 1958, he was named rector of the University.
Toma Peter A., "The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia," in Stephen Fischer-Galati, The Communist Parties of Eastern Europe ( New York, 1979).
Religious Policies in Communist Czechoslovakia. The aim of all communist regimes has been the elimination of all religious influences from their respective societies. If this were not entirely possible, the party was content to subordinate religious institutions to its policies. The communists were aware indeed that religion was a powerful force, therefore, they copied religious rituals as substitutes for the real thing. Burials, baptisms, and marriages were performed by state functionaries, and the theory of the infallibility of the pope was substituted for by the doctrine of the infallibility of the Communist party. Even the Holy Trinity found a replacement in the trio of Marx-Engels-Lenin in communist mythology.
The Communist party of Czechoslovakia was no exception. Immediately after the coup d'etat of 1948, special administrative measures were introduced in order to eliminate religious instruction in schools. Church leaders of all denominations were persecuted. Many were jailed on trumped-up charges and were sent to concentration camps. They received especially brutal treatment from the prison guards at these jails. National Committees (see National Committees in Czechoslovakia) in villages singled out priests and ministers for deportation.