Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

People's Congress. Elections for a new People's Congress were held in December 1947, in the Soviet zone of occupation. The congress was to create a unified policy for Germany, which would then be presented for the consideration of the Allied foreign ministers scheduled to meet shortly in London. However, most of the representatives were from the Soviet zone and were acting on behalf of the communists. Characteristically, the still untamed Christian Democratic Union of the Soviet zone refused to participate in the meeting. In response, the Soviet administrators withdrew their recognition of the Christian Democratic Union whose leaders then left for the Western zones. Only one renegade Christian Democratic leader, Otto Nuschke, attended the first meeting of the People's Congress. As a reward, he was promptly appointed chairman of his now defunct party in the Soviet zone.

In March 1948, a second meeting of the People's Congress was assembled. This was better organized than the first. It proceeded to appoint 330 people to the People's Council (Volksrat) of whom one-hundred were ostensibly to speak for West German. The chairmen of the various parties and mass organizations met at the assembly and formed a presidium that was to become the executive organ of the People's Congress. However, all this was really without much substance since the communists dominated the People's Congress and they were, in turn, supported by the Soviet occupational authorities. The Congress was simply a vehicle for Joseph Stalin to use for the eventual creation of the East German state.

The presidium of the congress proceeded to write a constitution and called for elections for a new People's Congress. The elections were held with a single list of candidates in May 1949. According to official statements, 66 percent of the votes were cast for the single list. The congress in session named 330 people from the top of the list for membership in the latest People's Congress. In an abrupt change of mind, the congress then named itself a provisional People's Chamber (Volkskammer), the equivalent of one house of the legislature for the Soviet zone of occupation. The Chamber proceeded to approve a constitution which, at least on paper, was a rather liberal document at the time. This became the first basic law of East Germany.


Bibliography

Croan Melvin, "Germany and Eastern Europe," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Krisch Henry, German Politics Under Soviet Occupation ( New York, 1974); Schneider Eberhard, The GDR: The History, Politics, Economics and Society of East Germany ( London, 1978); Stahl Walter, The Politics of Postwar Germany ( New York, 1963).

People's Police in East Germany. After the administrative machinery of Nazi Germany had been destroyed, the new police chief of Berlin was Paul Markgraf, a former prisoner of war in the Soviet Union. While in the Soviet Union, Markgraf had joined the Antifascist Alliance whose members were recruited from among German prisoners of war. On June 1, 1945, Markgraf declared the establishment of a police force in

-218-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of East European History since 1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps vii
  • Preface ix
  • INTRODUCTION: EASTERN EUROPE 1
  • Albania 37
  • Bibliography 39
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 46
  • Bibliography 47
  • Bibliography 48
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 50
  • Bibliography 51
  • Bibliography 51
  • Bibliography 53
  • Bibliography 54
  • Bibliography 56
  • Bibliography 57
  • Bibliography 58
  • Bibliography 60
  • Bibliography 60
  • Bibliography 62
  • Bibliography 63
  • Bibliography 63
  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 65
  • Bibliography 67
  • Bibliography 68
  • Bibliography 70
  • Bibliogrphy 71
  • Bibliography 71
  • Bibliography 72
  • Bibliography 75
  • Bibliography 76
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 79
  • Bulgaria 81
  • Bibliography 82
  • Bibliography 89
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 92
  • Bibliography 94
  • Bibliography 98
  • Bibliography 99
  • Bibliography 101
  • Bibliography 103
  • Bibliography 104
  • Bibliography 104
  • Bibliography 106
  • Bibliography 107
  • Bibliography 110
  • Bibliography 111
  • Bibliography 111
  • Bibliography 113
  • Bibliography 113
  • Bibliography 114
  • Bibliography 115
  • Bibliography 116
  • Bibliography 117
  • Bibliography 118
  • Bibliography 119
  • Bibliography 119
  • Bibliography 120
  • Bibliography 121
  • Bibliography 122
  • Bibliography 124
  • Bibliography 125
  • Bibliography 125
  • Czechoslovakia 127
  • Bibliography 127
  • Bibliography 133
  • Bibliography 133
  • Bibliography 134
  • Bibliography 135
  • Bibliography 136
  • Bibliography 138
  • Bibliography 141
  • Bibliography 141
  • Bibliography 143
  • Bibliography 144
  • Bibliography 145
  • Bibliography 146
  • Bibliography 149
  • Bibliography 150
  • Bibliography 151
  • Bibliography 152
  • Bibliography 153
  • Bibliography 154
  • Bibliography 154
  • Bibliography 155
  • Bibliography 156
  • Bibliography 157
  • Bibliography 158
  • Bibliography 159
  • Bibliography 159
  • Bibliography 160
  • Bibliography 160
  • Bibliography 161
  • Bibliography 162
  • Bibliography 163
  • Bibliography 163
  • Bibliography 164
  • Bibliography 166
  • Bibliography 166
  • Bibliography 167
  • Bibliography 168
  • Bibliography 168
  • Bibliography 170
  • Bibliography 171
  • Bibliography 172
  • Bibliography 172
  • Bibliography 173
  • Bibliography 174
  • Bibliography 174
  • German Democratic Republic (east Germany) 175
  • Bibliography 175
  • Bibliography 180
  • Bibliography 180
  • Bibliography 181
  • Bibliography 182
  • Bibliography 182
  • Bibliography 186
  • Bibliography 187
  • Bibliography 188
  • Bibliography 189
  • Bibliography 191
  • Bibliography 192
  • Bibliography 192
  • Bibliography 193
  • Bibliography 194
  • Bibliography 195
  • Bibliograhy 198
  • Bibliography 198
  • Bibliography 200
  • Bibliography 203
  • Bibliography 204
  • Bibliography 204
  • Bibliography 205
  • Bibliography 206
  • Bibliography 207
  • Bibliography 208
  • Bibliography 209
  • Bibliography 211
  • Bibliography 212
  • Bibliography 213
  • Bibliography 213
  • Bibliography 214
  • Bibliography 215
  • Bibliography 216
  • Bibliography 217
  • Bibliography 218
  • Bibliography 219
  • Bibliography 219
  • Bibliography 222
  • Bibliography 222
  • Bibliography 224
  • Bibliography 226
  • Bibliography 227
  • Bibliography 229
  • Bibliography 229
  • Bibliography 230
  • Hungary 231
  • Bibliography 231
  • Bibliography 241
  • Bibliography 241
  • Bibliography 242
  • Bibliography 242
  • Bibliography 243
  • Bibliography 243
  • Bibliography 244
  • Bibliography 245
  • Bibliography 245
  • Bibliography 246
  • Bibliography 247
  • Bibliography 251
  • Bibliography 251
  • Bibliography 252
  • Bibliography 254
  • Bibliography 255
  • Bibliography 259
  • Bibliography 261
  • Bibliography 261
  • Bibliography 262
  • Bibliography 263
  • Bibliography 264
  • Bibliography 265
  • Bibliography 265
  • Bibliography 266
  • Bibliography 267
  • Bibliography 267
  • Bibliography 268
  • Bibliography 269
  • Bibliography 270
  • Bibliography 272
  • Bibliography 272
  • Bibliography 272
  • Bibliography 273
  • Bibliography 273
  • Bibliography 274
  • Bibliography 274
  • Bibliography 274
  • Bibliography 275
  • Bibliography 276
  • Bibliography 276
  • Bibliography 277
  • Bibliography 278
  • Bibliography 279
  • Bibliography 279
  • Bibliography 280
  • Bibliography 283
  • Bibliography 284
  • Bibliography 284
  • Bibliography 285
  • Bibliography 285
  • Bibliography 286
  • Bibliography 287
  • Bibliography 288
  • Bibliography 288
  • Bibliography 290
  • Bibliography 290
  • Bibliography 291
  • Bibliography 293
  • Bibliography 294
  • Bibliography 295
  • Bibliography 296
  • Bibliography 297
  • Bibliography 298
  • Bibliography 298
  • Bibliography 298
  • Bibliography 299
  • Bibliography 300
  • Bibliography 300
  • Poland 301
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 310
  • Bibliography 311
  • Bibliography 311
  • Bibliography 312
  • Bibliography 312
  • Bibliography 313
  • Bibliography 313
  • Bibliography 319
  • Bibliography 321
  • Bibliography 323
  • Bibliography 331
  • Bibliography 331
  • Bibliography 332
  • Bibliography 333
  • Bibliography 335
  • Bibliography 337
  • Bibliography 339
  • Bibliography 340
  • Bibliography 341
  • Bibliography 343
  • Bibliography 344
  • Bibliography 345
  • Bibliography 346
  • Bibliography 347
  • Bibliography 349
  • Bibliography 350
  • Bibliography 351
  • Bibliography 352
  • Bibliography 353
  • Bibliography 354
  • Bibliography 356
  • Bibliography 357
  • Bibliography 359
  • Bibliography 359
  • Bibliography 361
  • Bibliography 364
  • Bibliography 364
  • Bibliography 365
  • Bibliography 369
  • Bibliography 369
  • Bibliography 370
  • Bibliography 370
  • Bibliography 371
  • Bibliography 372
  • Bibliography 373
  • Bibliography 374
  • Romania 377
  • Bibliography 377
  • Bibliography 383
  • Bibliography 384
  • Bibliography 385
  • Bibliography 386
  • Bibliography 387
  • Bibliography 388
  • Bibliography 388
  • Bibliography 391
  • Bibliography 392
  • Bibliography 392
  • Bibliography 393
  • Bibliography 394
  • Bibliography 396
  • Bibliography 397
  • Bibliography 398
  • Bibliography 400
  • Bibliography 401
  • Bibliography 401
  • Bibliography 403
  • Bibliography 406
  • Bibliography 407
  • Bibliography 408
  • Bibliography 409
  • Bibliography 410
  • Bibliography 411
  • Bibliography 412
  • Bibliography 412
  • Bibliography 413
  • Bibliography 414
  • Bibliography 414
  • Bibliography 415
  • Bibliography 416
  • Bibliography 417
  • Bibliography 417
  • Bibliography 418
  • Bibliography 419
  • Bibliography 422
  • Bibliography 422
  • Bibliography 423
  • Bibliography 424
  • Bibliography 426
  • Bibliography 426
  • Bibliography 428
  • Bibilography 428
  • Bibliography 429
  • Bibliography 430
  • Bibliography 431
  • Bibliography 431
  • Bibliography 432
  • Bibliography 434
  • Bibliography 435
  • Bibliography 435
  • Bibliography 436
  • Yugoslavia 437
  • Bibliography 437
  • Bibliography 443
  • Bibliography 444
  • Bibliography 444
  • Bibliography 446
  • Bibliography 448
  • Bibliography 449
  • Bibliography 452
  • Bibliography 453
  • Bibliography 454
  • Bibliography 454
  • Bibliography 455
  • Bibliography 456
  • Bibliography 458
  • Bibliography 461
  • Bibliography 463
  • Bibliography 464
  • Bibliography 464
  • Bibliography 465
  • Bibliography 466
  • Bibliography 466
  • Bibliography 467
  • Bibliography 467
  • Bibliography 469
  • Bibliography 469
  • Bibliography 471
  • Bibliography 472
  • Bibilography 472
  • Bibliography 474
  • Bibliography 475
  • Bibliography 475
  • Bibliography 476
  • Bibliography 477
  • Bibliography 477
  • Bibliography 478
  • Bibliography 480
  • Bibliography 483
  • Bibliography 484
  • Bibliography 487
  • Bibliography 488
  • Bibliography 488
  • Bibliography 490
  • Bibliography 490
  • Bibliography 492
  • Bibliography 493
  • Bibliography 494
  • Bibliography 494
  • Bibliography 495
  • Bibliography 496
  • Biblography 496
  • Bibliography 497
  • Index 499
  • About the Author 511
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 514

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.