Dictionary of East European History since 1945

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rary of his, who became deputy director of the Historical Institute. Their joint works received wide publicity and gained them both a well-deserved international reputation. Berend lectured at most of the European universities, including Oxford and Cambridge. He was also a frequent guest at conferences in the United States and taught as a guest professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, Columbia University, and elsewhere. In 1984, Berend was appointed president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and became vice president of the International Association of Historians. He chaired the committee of the academy that reexamined the data of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and declared that it was not a counter revolution, but a popular uprising against tyranny. In 1990, Berend left Hungary, and accepted a distinguished professorship at UCLA.


Bibliography

Berend Ivan T., Decades of Crisis: Central and East Europe between the two World Wars (in Hungarian and English) ( Budapest, Hungary, 1982); Berend Ivan T., and Gyorgy Ranki, The Economy of Eastern Europe between the World Wars ( New York, 1980).

Bibo, Istvan (1911-1967). Bibo received an excellent education in a gymnasium (a German-style High School) in Budapest. He attended the University of Szeged and earned a doctorate in political science. He also studied in Geneva, Switzerland. After his return to Hungary, he was appointed a judge in Budapest. In the early 1930s, Bibo became interested in the fledgling populist movement in Hungary. What attracted him to this movement was that it promoted a popular front movement in opposition to the conservative-dominated political life in the country without succumbing to radical Marxist ideology. In fact, he considered Marxism an ideology not suitable for Hungarian conditions.

Bibo's sympathy for the populists did not translate into political action. Nevertheless, after World War II, he joined the National Peasant party which was the gathering place for most of his populist friends. He was promptly appointed under secretary in the ministry of the interior, headed at that time by the Peasant party leader, Ferenc Erdei (see Erdei, Ferenc). Bibo worked out a plan for reforming the state bureaucracy; however, when the communists took over in 1948, Bibo's plan was shelved.

While working as under secretary, he wrote a study entitled, "The Crisis of Hungarian Democracy." In this work he analyzed the dangers of the extreme right and of the left. He also worked on a draft for a new constitution for Hungary. In 1946, Bibo wrote another study, about the "Misery of the Small States of Eastern Europe," with which he intended to educate the Hungarian public. He was a bit naive, however, because the Communist party had already secured the bases on which it was to build its monopoly of power.

In 1949, following the show trials of Laszlo Rajk (see Rajk, Laszlo) and Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty (see Mindszenty, Jozsef Cardinal), Bibo no longer was active. He was transferred from the ministry of the interior to a chair at the University of Szeged. He lasted in that position for a little over a year. Then he accepted another

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