Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961), Bruszt Laszlo, and Stark David, "Remaking the Political Field in Hungary: From the Politics of Confrontation to the Politics of Competition," in Ivo Banac, ed. Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca, NY, 1992); Fejto François, A History of the People's Democracies ( Paris, 1971); Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979); Molnar Miklos, A Short History of Hungarian Communist Party ( Boulder, CO, 1978); Rothschild Joseph, Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II ( Oxford, 1992); Swain Nigel, Hungary. The Rise and Fall of Feasible Socialism ( London, 1992).
Csoori, Sandor (1930-) . Csoori, born of peasant ancestry, became a poet and writer. In 1954, he was appointed a journalist to Szabad Ifjusag (Free Youth), the journal of Hungarian Democratic Youth Association, a communist front organization. Three years later, he became a journalist for the Iradalmi Ujsag (Literary Journal), the official organ of the Writers Union. In 1956, he became a contributor to Uj Hang (New Voice), a journal supportive of Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre) and the revolution. He was a close friend of Gyula Illyes (see Illyes, Gyula), one of the great Hungarian poets of the twentieth century Csoori aspired to succeed Illyes upon his death, but his talents did not measure up to those of the great poet. In 1987, Csoori was among the founders of the Hungarian Democratic Forum. Two years later, he was appointed president of the World Association of Hungarians.
Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961).
Csurka, Istvan (1934-). Csurka was born to Calvinist parents, and his formative years were spent under the influence of his father who had strong rightist views. He studied at the College for Drama and Film in Budapest, but his career was slow to develop. In 1956, Csurka supported the revolution and was, therefore, forbidden to publish his writings. During the 1960s and 1970s, however, officialdom forgave him, and Csurka published several novels and wrote plays. The communist regime rewarded him with the prestigious Jozsef Attila Prize twice. The awards were given to him by Gyorgy Aczel (see Aczel, Gyorgy), the communist party's overseer of Hungarian cultural life. Csurka was later to denounce Aczel as a Jewish conspirator against Hungary, but Csurka was a born rebel.
During the 1970s and 1980s, his work was banned several times, and he was silenced for short periods. In 1983, he resigned from the leadership of the Hungarian Writers' Union after yet another brush with authorities, when some of his works were published in the West without official permission. In 1987, Csurka was one of the instigators of the first meeting of the opposition at the village of Monor, and later at Lakitelek, which resulted in the establishment of the Hungarian Democratic Forum.
In the free elections held in March 1990, he was elected a parliamentary deputy on the party's list. Simultaneously, he became deputy chairman of the Democratic Forum. In August 1992, Csurka issued a document in which he condemned the slow